102 Theme 4: Infection And Immunity at University Of Sussex | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für 102 Theme 4: infection and immunity an der University of Sussex

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is a commensal?
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An organism that lives alongside us without infecting 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Define virulence 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
The relative ability of a pathogen to cause disease
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Virulence of gram negative bacterial species
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Outer membrane
Lipopolysaccharides, proteins and pores
Thin peptidooglycans
Inner membrane
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Virulence of streptococcus pneumoniae 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- specific adhesins for respiratory mucosa
- pneumolysin (binds host cell membrane cholesterol, forms pores and lyses in ciliated cells and lyses host phagocytic cells)
- secretory IgA protease (breaks down secreted immunoglobulin A, preventing mucosal clearance)
- capsule (polysaccharide coat prevents complement-mediated phagocytosis)
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Horizontal transmission of viral infections 
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Horizontal route:
  • Airborne - droplets (>2mcm) or aerosols (<2mcm)
    • common cold
    • influenza
    • measles
    • mump
    • rubella
    • chicken pox
    • SARS-CoV-2
  • Foecal-oral 
    • HAV (hepatitis A)
    • HEV (hepatitis E)
    • campylobacter spp (causes diarrhoea)
  • Sexual 
    • HIV
    • HBV (+/- HDV)
    • HPV
    • HHSV
    • HAV, HCV
    • N. gonorrhaeae 
  • Vector-borne 
    • Arboviruses (ARthropod-BOrne-viruses)
    • dengue, chikungunya, Zika (caused by aedes mosquitoes)
    • west nile infection (caused by culex mosquitones)
    • tick-borne encephalitis (caused by ticks)
  • Parenteral transmission - contaminated blood
    • spread through transfusions, needle pricks, tattoos, razor cuts etc
    • Blood Born Viruses (BBV) - HIV, HCV, HV (+/- HDV)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Define invasiveness 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
The capacity of a virus to enter a tissue or an organ
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is Staphylococcus aureus?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- a normal commensal of anterior nares found in 20-60% of healthy adults at any one time
- highly adapted to a host species (e.g. Homo sapiens) and sites on our bodies
- golden colonies form when cultured on agar (this differentiates it from other staphylococci)
- gram positive cocci in clusters which look like bunches of grapes down a microscope
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Name some S.aureus skin infections
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Furunculosis
impetigo
staphylococcal abscess
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Virulence of the gram-postive membrane
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
thick peptidoglycan layer
lipoteichoic and teichroic acid
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is haemoptysis?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Blood stained sputum
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Summary of common S.aureus infections
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Soft tissue infections
surgical site infections
vascular line related infections
 (most common cause is Bacteraemia)
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Diagnosis of viral infection
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • DIRECT DETECTION
    • Light microscopy (visualise cytopathic effect)
    • electron microscopy (visualise viruses)
    • particle agglutination test (particles coated with virus-specific antibodies)
    • immunofluorescence technique (IFT)
    • serology (use of antibodies to detect viral antigen)
    • quantative real-time PCR (qPCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) - detect viral genome - widely used as it allows for quantification (e.g. Viral load)
    • Viral culture (very difficult)

  • INDIRECT DETECTION - detection of human antibodies against the virus
    • complement fixation test
    • hemagglutination inhibition test
    • enzyme-linked immunosorbet assay (ELISA)
Lösung ausblenden
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  • 203 Studierende
  • 1 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen 102 Theme 4: infection and immunity Kurs an der University of Sussex - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:
What is a commensal?
A:
An organism that lives alongside us without infecting 
Q:
Define virulence 
A:
The relative ability of a pathogen to cause disease
Q:
Virulence of gram negative bacterial species
A:
Outer membrane
Lipopolysaccharides, proteins and pores
Thin peptidooglycans
Inner membrane
Q:
Virulence of streptococcus pneumoniae 
A:
- specific adhesins for respiratory mucosa
- pneumolysin (binds host cell membrane cholesterol, forms pores and lyses in ciliated cells and lyses host phagocytic cells)
- secretory IgA protease (breaks down secreted immunoglobulin A, preventing mucosal clearance)
- capsule (polysaccharide coat prevents complement-mediated phagocytosis)
Q:
Horizontal transmission of viral infections 
A:
Horizontal route:
  • Airborne - droplets (>2mcm) or aerosols (<2mcm)
    • common cold
    • influenza
    • measles
    • mump
    • rubella
    • chicken pox
    • SARS-CoV-2
  • Foecal-oral 
    • HAV (hepatitis A)
    • HEV (hepatitis E)
    • campylobacter spp (causes diarrhoea)
  • Sexual 
    • HIV
    • HBV (+/- HDV)
    • HPV
    • HHSV
    • HAV, HCV
    • N. gonorrhaeae 
  • Vector-borne 
    • Arboviruses (ARthropod-BOrne-viruses)
    • dengue, chikungunya, Zika (caused by aedes mosquitoes)
    • west nile infection (caused by culex mosquitones)
    • tick-borne encephalitis (caused by ticks)
  • Parenteral transmission - contaminated blood
    • spread through transfusions, needle pricks, tattoos, razor cuts etc
    • Blood Born Viruses (BBV) - HIV, HCV, HV (+/- HDV)

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Define invasiveness 
A:
The capacity of a virus to enter a tissue or an organ
Q:
What is Staphylococcus aureus?
A:
- a normal commensal of anterior nares found in 20-60% of healthy adults at any one time
- highly adapted to a host species (e.g. Homo sapiens) and sites on our bodies
- golden colonies form when cultured on agar (this differentiates it from other staphylococci)
- gram positive cocci in clusters which look like bunches of grapes down a microscope
Q:
Name some S.aureus skin infections
A:
Furunculosis
impetigo
staphylococcal abscess
Q:
Virulence of the gram-postive membrane
A:
thick peptidoglycan layer
lipoteichoic and teichroic acid
Q:
What is haemoptysis?
A:
Blood stained sputum
Q:
Summary of common S.aureus infections
A:
Soft tissue infections
surgical site infections
vascular line related infections
 (most common cause is Bacteraemia)
Q:
Diagnosis of viral infection
A:
  • DIRECT DETECTION
    • Light microscopy (visualise cytopathic effect)
    • electron microscopy (visualise viruses)
    • particle agglutination test (particles coated with virus-specific antibodies)
    • immunofluorescence technique (IFT)
    • serology (use of antibodies to detect viral antigen)
    • quantative real-time PCR (qPCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) - detect viral genome - widely used as it allows for quantification (e.g. Viral load)
    • Viral culture (very difficult)

  • INDIRECT DETECTION - detection of human antibodies against the virus
    • complement fixation test
    • hemagglutination inhibition test
    • enzyme-linked immunosorbet assay (ELISA)
102 Theme 4: infection and immunity

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