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Lernmaterialien für Sleep an der University of Surrey

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are parasomnias?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Group of sleep disorders that involve unwanted events or experiences that occur while you are falling asleep, sleeping or waking up
  • May include abnormal movements, behaviours, emotions, perceptions or dreams
  • You remain asleep during the event and often have no memory that it occurred
  • More common in children (brain immaturity)

  • Sleep walking 
  • Night terrors
  • Restless leg syndrome 
  • Periodic limb movements 
  • Sexsomnia
  • Sleep-related eating disorder
  • REM sleep behaviour disorder 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What do sleep deprivation studies tell us about sleep?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Randy Gardner: stayed awake for 264 hours in 1965
  • After 2 days: irritable, nauseated, memory problems, could not watch TV anymore
  • After 4 days: mild delusions, overwhelming fatigue
  • After 7 days: tremor, language problems, EEG abnormality
  • After end of trial: normalised quickly again (not true for some animals deprived of sleep, e.g., rats who will die if they are not allowed to sleep for long periods of time) - sleep patterns can be rectified in humans
  • Displayed the importance of sleep in neural and physical function

Numerous articles about sleep deprivation impacting:
  • Mood
  • Cognitive performance - executive attention, working memory
  • Motor function 

  • Deficits accumulate over time: Drumer & Dinges (2005)
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Glossary of waves and rhythmic patterns:
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Alpha wave: relatively low frequency, relatively high amplitude brain wave that becomes synchronized; characteristic of the beginning of stage 1 sleep and rest (alpha increases in amplitude when we close our eyes)
Delta wave: low frequency, high amplitude brain wave characteristic of stage 3 and stage 4 sleep
K-complex: very high amplitude pattern of brain activity associated with stage 2 sleep
Non-REM (NREM): period of sleep outside periods of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep: period of sleep characterized by brain waves very similar to those during wakefulness and by darting movements of the eyes under closed eyelids
Sleep spindle: rapid burst of high frequency brain waves during stage 2 sleep that may be important for learning and memory
Stage 1 sleep: first stage of sleep; transitional phase that occurs between wakefulness and sleep; the period during which a person drifts off to sleep
Stage 2 sleep: second stage of sleep; the body goes into deep relaxation; characterized by the appearance of sleep spindles
Stages 3 and 4 of sleep: deep sleep characterized by low frequency, high amplitude delta waves
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the history of knowledge of sleep?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
While We Sleep, Our Mind Goes on an Amazing Journey.
Around 350 B.C., Aristotle wrote an essay, “On Sleep and Sleeplessness,” wondering just what we were doing and why. For the next 2,300 years no one had a good answer. In 1924 German psychiatrist Hans Berger invented the electroencephalograph, which records electrical activity in the brain, and the study of sleep shifted from philosophy to science. It’s only in the past few decades, though, as imaging machines have allowed ever deeper glimpses of the brain’s inner workings, that we’ve approached a convincing answer to Aristotle.Everything we’ve learned about sleep has emphasized its importance to our mental and physical health. Our sleep-wake pattern is a central feature of human biology—an adaptation to life on a spinning planet, with its endless wheel of day and night. The 2017 Nobel Prize in medicine was awarded to three scientists who, in the 1980s and 1990s, identified the molecular clock inside our cells that aims to keep us in sync with the sun. When this circadian rhythm breaks down, recent research has shown, we are at increased risk for illnesses such as diabetes, heart disease, and dementia.

Article from National Geographic
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are sleep disorders?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Diagnostic manuals (e.g., DSM-V)
Main categories:
  • insomnias (difficulty going to sleep/staying asleep)
  • hypersomnolence (daytime sleeping e.g., narcolepsy)
  • parasomnias (disorders that disrupt sleep - e.g., sleepwalking)
  • circadian rhythm disorders (timing of sleep)
  • breathing disorders (e.g., sleep apnea)
Note: causes and symptoms are all very different
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
“We need darkness to sleep”. Critically discuss this claim.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
(Ines' response)
Start by giving a definition of sleep. Explain what is the circadian rhythm and the sleep-wake cycle and the critical importance of zeitegebers to this cycle. Emphasise light as a powerful zeitegeber and how light influences the function of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN as a biological clock that is sensitive to information from the environment to synchronise circadian rhythms and make adjustments). Highlight how the SCN receives information from retinal ganglion cells and how these contain melanopsin which is sensitive to blue light.Make inferences about the relationship between (A) the regulation of the SCN and melatonin in environments that do not have a periodic light-darkness cycle (e.g. shift workers, jet lag, increase use of screens at night from smartphones and computers which use blue light) and (B) sleep problems and psychological deviations. You can finalise by highlighting the importance of sleep to cognitive functions.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the differences between slow wave sleep and REM/paradoxical sleep?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
EEG:
=> Slow wave:
  • Large amplitude
  • Slow waves ~ 1 Hz
=> REM/paradoxical:
  • Low amplitude (cf waking)
BODY:
=> Slow wave:
  • Temperature drop, heart rate slows
=> REM/paradoxical:
  • Core temperature drops, heart rate and respiration increases
SPINAL REFLEXES:
=> Slow wave:
  • Some reduction (capable of movement)
=> REM/paradoxical:
  • Strong descending inhibition of motor neurons
AROUSAL:
=> Slow wave:
  • To "significant" stimuli 
=> REM/paradoxical:
  • Raised threshold (deep sleep) but often waking from REM
PHASIC EVENTS:
=> Slow wave:
  • Muscle twitches
=> REM/paradoxical:
  • Sudden eye movements (REM)
  • Sudden CNS discharges 
REPORTS:
=> Slow wave:
  • "dreams" 0-20%
=> REM/paradoxical:
  • "dreams" 80-90%
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What determines one's preference for being awake at a certain time (owl or lark)?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Whether we are a lark or owl related to our chronotype - and may shift across our lifetime
  • Determined by Gene's
  • Reflect innate differences in circadian period, and how easily a rhythm can be synchronised to the night-day cycle
  • More than half of people (in industrialised societies) may have circadian rhythms out of phase with the schedule they keep - "social jet lag"
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is REM sleep behaviour disorder?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Sleep paralysis is absent
  • Most patients are male
  • Descending activity from brain to muscles usually blocked by pins
  • Brain stem
  • Pons lesioned -> REM behaviour disorder 
  • Act out dreams
  • Can also be related to some other conditions (e.g., Parkinson's)
  • Treatment - benzodiazepines or melatonin 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is sleep apnea?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Muscles and soft tissues in the throat relax and collapse sufficiently to cause a blockage of the airway 
  • Oxygen level in your blood drops
  • Brain disturbs sleeps -> waken to resume breathing
  • Often don't remember awakenings
Causes
  • Commonly associated with weight
  • Lifestyle: alcohol, smoking, medicines
  • Having a large neck/unusual neck structure 
  • Correlation with: gender (male), age (40+), menopause 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are circadian rhythm disorders?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Different from voluntary or imposed shift in timing of sleep (e.g., shift work; jet lag)
  • Intrinsic:
  • Seen in blind people, also co-morbid with ADHD, depression or neurodegenerative disease
  • Altered or disrupted sensitivity to external cues: delayed sleep phase disorder, advanced sleep phase disorder
  • Difficulty in diagnosable disorder vs. subclinical tendencies 
  • Individual differences in tolerance of disparities in circadian synchronisation 
  • Treatment involves light exposure/ melatonin 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Why do we dream?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Wish fulfilment (Freud)
  • Unconscious way to express sexual and aggressive fantasies 
2. Physiological function theory
  • Promote neural development and preserve neural pathways by providing the brain with stimulation
3. Activation - Synthesis Model (Hobson & McCarley) 
  • Dreams are products of brain neuron activity in the visual cortex, memory areas, and emotion areas
  • No external stimulus; so brain tries to make sense of neuron activity = content of a "dream"
  • Explains randomness of dreams, does not explain how some dreams have complex narratives 
  • Prefrontal cortex shuts down during REM
  • So, you have fewer inhibitions and don't question illogical parts of dreams
Lösung ausblenden
  • 4201 Karteikarten
  • 184 Studierende
  • 17 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Sleep Kurs an der University of Surrey - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:
What are parasomnias?
A:
  • Group of sleep disorders that involve unwanted events or experiences that occur while you are falling asleep, sleeping or waking up
  • May include abnormal movements, behaviours, emotions, perceptions or dreams
  • You remain asleep during the event and often have no memory that it occurred
  • More common in children (brain immaturity)

  • Sleep walking 
  • Night terrors
  • Restless leg syndrome 
  • Periodic limb movements 
  • Sexsomnia
  • Sleep-related eating disorder
  • REM sleep behaviour disorder 
Q:
What do sleep deprivation studies tell us about sleep?
A:
  • Randy Gardner: stayed awake for 264 hours in 1965
  • After 2 days: irritable, nauseated, memory problems, could not watch TV anymore
  • After 4 days: mild delusions, overwhelming fatigue
  • After 7 days: tremor, language problems, EEG abnormality
  • After end of trial: normalised quickly again (not true for some animals deprived of sleep, e.g., rats who will die if they are not allowed to sleep for long periods of time) - sleep patterns can be rectified in humans
  • Displayed the importance of sleep in neural and physical function

Numerous articles about sleep deprivation impacting:
  • Mood
  • Cognitive performance - executive attention, working memory
  • Motor function 

  • Deficits accumulate over time: Drumer & Dinges (2005)
Q:
Glossary of waves and rhythmic patterns:
A:
Alpha wave: relatively low frequency, relatively high amplitude brain wave that becomes synchronized; characteristic of the beginning of stage 1 sleep and rest (alpha increases in amplitude when we close our eyes)
Delta wave: low frequency, high amplitude brain wave characteristic of stage 3 and stage 4 sleep
K-complex: very high amplitude pattern of brain activity associated with stage 2 sleep
Non-REM (NREM): period of sleep outside periods of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep: period of sleep characterized by brain waves very similar to those during wakefulness and by darting movements of the eyes under closed eyelids
Sleep spindle: rapid burst of high frequency brain waves during stage 2 sleep that may be important for learning and memory
Stage 1 sleep: first stage of sleep; transitional phase that occurs between wakefulness and sleep; the period during which a person drifts off to sleep
Stage 2 sleep: second stage of sleep; the body goes into deep relaxation; characterized by the appearance of sleep spindles
Stages 3 and 4 of sleep: deep sleep characterized by low frequency, high amplitude delta waves
Q:
What is the history of knowledge of sleep?
A:
While We Sleep, Our Mind Goes on an Amazing Journey.
Around 350 B.C., Aristotle wrote an essay, “On Sleep and Sleeplessness,” wondering just what we were doing and why. For the next 2,300 years no one had a good answer. In 1924 German psychiatrist Hans Berger invented the electroencephalograph, which records electrical activity in the brain, and the study of sleep shifted from philosophy to science. It’s only in the past few decades, though, as imaging machines have allowed ever deeper glimpses of the brain’s inner workings, that we’ve approached a convincing answer to Aristotle.Everything we’ve learned about sleep has emphasized its importance to our mental and physical health. Our sleep-wake pattern is a central feature of human biology—an adaptation to life on a spinning planet, with its endless wheel of day and night. The 2017 Nobel Prize in medicine was awarded to three scientists who, in the 1980s and 1990s, identified the molecular clock inside our cells that aims to keep us in sync with the sun. When this circadian rhythm breaks down, recent research has shown, we are at increased risk for illnesses such as diabetes, heart disease, and dementia.

Article from National Geographic
Q:
What are sleep disorders?
A:
Diagnostic manuals (e.g., DSM-V)
Main categories:
  • insomnias (difficulty going to sleep/staying asleep)
  • hypersomnolence (daytime sleeping e.g., narcolepsy)
  • parasomnias (disorders that disrupt sleep - e.g., sleepwalking)
  • circadian rhythm disorders (timing of sleep)
  • breathing disorders (e.g., sleep apnea)
Note: causes and symptoms are all very different
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
“We need darkness to sleep”. Critically discuss this claim.
A:
(Ines' response)
Start by giving a definition of sleep. Explain what is the circadian rhythm and the sleep-wake cycle and the critical importance of zeitegebers to this cycle. Emphasise light as a powerful zeitegeber and how light influences the function of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN as a biological clock that is sensitive to information from the environment to synchronise circadian rhythms and make adjustments). Highlight how the SCN receives information from retinal ganglion cells and how these contain melanopsin which is sensitive to blue light.Make inferences about the relationship between (A) the regulation of the SCN and melatonin in environments that do not have a periodic light-darkness cycle (e.g. shift workers, jet lag, increase use of screens at night from smartphones and computers which use blue light) and (B) sleep problems and psychological deviations. You can finalise by highlighting the importance of sleep to cognitive functions.
Q:
What are the differences between slow wave sleep and REM/paradoxical sleep?
A:
EEG:
=> Slow wave:
  • Large amplitude
  • Slow waves ~ 1 Hz
=> REM/paradoxical:
  • Low amplitude (cf waking)
BODY:
=> Slow wave:
  • Temperature drop, heart rate slows
=> REM/paradoxical:
  • Core temperature drops, heart rate and respiration increases
SPINAL REFLEXES:
=> Slow wave:
  • Some reduction (capable of movement)
=> REM/paradoxical:
  • Strong descending inhibition of motor neurons
AROUSAL:
=> Slow wave:
  • To "significant" stimuli 
=> REM/paradoxical:
  • Raised threshold (deep sleep) but often waking from REM
PHASIC EVENTS:
=> Slow wave:
  • Muscle twitches
=> REM/paradoxical:
  • Sudden eye movements (REM)
  • Sudden CNS discharges 
REPORTS:
=> Slow wave:
  • "dreams" 0-20%
=> REM/paradoxical:
  • "dreams" 80-90%
Q:
What determines one's preference for being awake at a certain time (owl or lark)?
A:
  • Whether we are a lark or owl related to our chronotype - and may shift across our lifetime
  • Determined by Gene's
  • Reflect innate differences in circadian period, and how easily a rhythm can be synchronised to the night-day cycle
  • More than half of people (in industrialised societies) may have circadian rhythms out of phase with the schedule they keep - "social jet lag"
Q:
What is REM sleep behaviour disorder?
A:
  • Sleep paralysis is absent
  • Most patients are male
  • Descending activity from brain to muscles usually blocked by pins
  • Brain stem
  • Pons lesioned -> REM behaviour disorder 
  • Act out dreams
  • Can also be related to some other conditions (e.g., Parkinson's)
  • Treatment - benzodiazepines or melatonin 
Q:
What is sleep apnea?
A:
  • Muscles and soft tissues in the throat relax and collapse sufficiently to cause a blockage of the airway 
  • Oxygen level in your blood drops
  • Brain disturbs sleeps -> waken to resume breathing
  • Often don't remember awakenings
Causes
  • Commonly associated with weight
  • Lifestyle: alcohol, smoking, medicines
  • Having a large neck/unusual neck structure 
  • Correlation with: gender (male), age (40+), menopause 
Q:
What are circadian rhythm disorders?
A:
  • Different from voluntary or imposed shift in timing of sleep (e.g., shift work; jet lag)
  • Intrinsic:
  • Seen in blind people, also co-morbid with ADHD, depression or neurodegenerative disease
  • Altered or disrupted sensitivity to external cues: delayed sleep phase disorder, advanced sleep phase disorder
  • Difficulty in diagnosable disorder vs. subclinical tendencies 
  • Individual differences in tolerance of disparities in circadian synchronisation 
  • Treatment involves light exposure/ melatonin 
Q:
Why do we dream?
A:
1. Wish fulfilment (Freud)
  • Unconscious way to express sexual and aggressive fantasies 
2. Physiological function theory
  • Promote neural development and preserve neural pathways by providing the brain with stimulation
3. Activation - Synthesis Model (Hobson & McCarley) 
  • Dreams are products of brain neuron activity in the visual cortex, memory areas, and emotion areas
  • No external stimulus; so brain tries to make sense of neuron activity = content of a "dream"
  • Explains randomness of dreams, does not explain how some dreams have complex narratives 
  • Prefrontal cortex shuts down during REM
  • So, you have fewer inhibitions and don't question illogical parts of dreams
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