Human Phsyiology at University Of Surrey | Flashcards & Summaries

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Explain the terms active and passive transport of substances across a membrane 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Active transport

  • Movement against the concentration gradient 
  • ATP is required (adenosine triphosphate) as active transport requires energy 
  • These proteins serve as pumps, pumping compounds again the concentration gradient from allow to high concentration 

Passive transport 

  • Require no energy
  • Compounds move freely across the membrane
  • Types of passive transport is diffusion and osmosis
  • These types of passive transport move materials of small molecular weight across the membrane 
  • Diffusers from high to low concentration areas
  • Diffusion will occur until a point of equilibrium is reached 

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Name a substance that moves by each mechanism in active and passive transport 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Active transport - ions / glucose / potassium

Passive transport - oxygen and carbon dioxide 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Why is mitosis important in cells 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Allows new cells to grow and develop
  • Cells need to be continuously replaced 
  • Allows living organisms to grow, heal, and replace damaged cells 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Mitosis is the division of…
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Somatic (body) cells
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the key stages of mitosis
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What happens in prophase
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Chromosomes thicken and shorten and become visible
  • The two chromatids join together by the centromere
  • Centrioles move to either side of the nucleus
  • Nuclear membrane disentegrates
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What happens in metaphase
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Chromatids meet down the middle of cell
  • Centrioles grow spindle fibres which then attach to centromere
  • Chromosomes then arrange at the equator of cell
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What happens in anaphase
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Chromatids get pulled apart and are pulled towards opposite ends of the cell
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What happens in telophase 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Two nuclei develop
  • Chromosomes uncoil
  • Spindle fibres disintegrate
  • Nuclear membrane forms
  • Cell divides and splits into cytokenesis

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Name the process in animals which require meiosis to take place 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Sexual reproduction
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the stages of meiosis 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Has 8 stages:
prophase l, metaphase l, anaphase l, telophase l (meiosis 1)

prophase 2, metaphase 2, anaphase 2, telophase 2 (meiosis 2)




Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe the key chromosome movement which occur in the stages of meiosis 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Prophase l
  • Synapsid occurs
  • Homologous chromosomes come together and form a tetrad which are sister and non sister chromatids
  • Crossing over occurs
  • Segments of non sister chromatids break and reattach to other chromatid
  • Crossing over creates variation (diversity) in the offspring traits 
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Q:
Explain the terms active and passive transport of substances across a membrane 
A:
Active transport

  • Movement against the concentration gradient 
  • ATP is required (adenosine triphosphate) as active transport requires energy 
  • These proteins serve as pumps, pumping compounds again the concentration gradient from allow to high concentration 

Passive transport 

  • Require no energy
  • Compounds move freely across the membrane
  • Types of passive transport is diffusion and osmosis
  • These types of passive transport move materials of small molecular weight across the membrane 
  • Diffusers from high to low concentration areas
  • Diffusion will occur until a point of equilibrium is reached 

Q:
Name a substance that moves by each mechanism in active and passive transport 
A:
Active transport - ions / glucose / potassium

Passive transport - oxygen and carbon dioxide 
Q:
Why is mitosis important in cells 

A:
  • Allows new cells to grow and develop
  • Cells need to be continuously replaced 
  • Allows living organisms to grow, heal, and replace damaged cells 
Q:
Mitosis is the division of…
A:
Somatic (body) cells
Q:
What are the key stages of mitosis
A:
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase


Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
What happens in prophase
A:
  • Chromosomes thicken and shorten and become visible
  • The two chromatids join together by the centromere
  • Centrioles move to either side of the nucleus
  • Nuclear membrane disentegrates
Q:
What happens in metaphase
A:
  • Chromatids meet down the middle of cell
  • Centrioles grow spindle fibres which then attach to centromere
  • Chromosomes then arrange at the equator of cell
Q:
What happens in anaphase
A:
Chromatids get pulled apart and are pulled towards opposite ends of the cell
Q:
What happens in telophase 
A:
  • Two nuclei develop
  • Chromosomes uncoil
  • Spindle fibres disintegrate
  • Nuclear membrane forms
  • Cell divides and splits into cytokenesis

Q:
Name the process in animals which require meiosis to take place 
A:
Sexual reproduction
Q:
What are the stages of meiosis 
A:
Has 8 stages:
prophase l, metaphase l, anaphase l, telophase l (meiosis 1)

prophase 2, metaphase 2, anaphase 2, telophase 2 (meiosis 2)




Q:
Describe the key chromosome movement which occur in the stages of meiosis 
A:
Prophase l
  • Synapsid occurs
  • Homologous chromosomes come together and form a tetrad which are sister and non sister chromatids
  • Crossing over occurs
  • Segments of non sister chromatids break and reattach to other chromatid
  • Crossing over creates variation (diversity) in the offspring traits 
human phsyiology

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