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Lernmaterialien für CHIP an der University of Surrey

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is Lewin's field theory?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- The first major systematic theory of social behaviour in psychology 
- B = f (P, E): (Behaviour is a function of a person in an environment)
  • Behaviour is dynamic, emergent
  • The person behaves in the context of the "whole" of the environment 
  • The environment that matters is the environment as the person perceives it
  • Mathematical theory: Like other Gestalt theorists, Lewin thought that social psychology could be made scientific by appeal to mathematics 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What was psychology like prior to WW1?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- studies of suggestibility, particularly that of crowds
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What was psychology like in the 1920s?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- emergence of an "individualist" social psychology (the Allport's, esp. Floyd)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What was Lewin's influence on post-war psychology?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- Centre of Group Dynamics at MIT in 1944
- "Action Research:" Applied research into ethnic housing discrimination 
- Key slogans:
  • "Nothing so practical as a good theory"
  • "Shuttling between the lab and the field"
- Lewin's dies prematurely in 1947, but many of his students took forward his vision for a scientific social psychology 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What was psychology like in the 1960s?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- The era of group experiments (notably Milgram)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What was psychology like in the 1930s?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- Gestalt influence: Kurt Lewin, but also Sherif and Asch
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What was psychology like in the 1940s?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- WW2 changes thoughts about race and group hatred
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Who was Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919)?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- Leader of the "Nancy school" of hypnotism
- Studied individual and group differences in "suggestability"
- Joseph Delboeuf (1831-1896) debunked studies by Alfred Binet and Charles Fere with Charcot as evidence of suggestion
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What was psychology like in the 1950s?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- Cold war era of conformity: Asch studies
- After Lewin dies, his students continue: Festinger's Cognitive Dissonance
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Who was Floyd Allport?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- Attack on the "group fallacy"
  • "All theories which partake of the group fallacy have the unfortunate consequence of diverting attention from the true locus of cause and effect, namely, the behaviour mechanism of the individual" - Floyd Allport, Social Psychology, 1924, page 9
- Floyd and Gordon Allport develop individual measures of personality traits, values, and attitudes
  • Social psychology starts to talk about the social as the individual constructs it
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Who was Kurt Lewin (1890-1947)?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- Born in "Prussia", middle-class Jewish background
- Active in social movements (women's rights)
- Part of the "Gestalt" school in Berlin in 1920s
  • PhD advisor was Carl Stumpf of "Clever Hans" fame
  • Supervised PhD of Bluma Zeigarnik
- Influenced by the "Frankfurt School" (Freudian Marxists)
- Emigrated to USA in 1933
  • Possibly missed a job at Stanford due to anti-Semitism, we don't quite know...
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How did cognitive dissonance and attitude change dominate the 1960s?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- "Cognitive Dissonance" was understood to be an unpleasant state of arousal that causes attitude and behaviour change
- Proposed by Leon Festinger (Lewin student)
    - The insufficient justification experiment
  • Students engage in a boring task
  • Must then brief the next student that the task is interesting for a trivial reward ($1) or a large one ($20)
  • "Real" attitudes to the experiment recorded
- Festinger at al (1959) - in the middle of the "Cognitive Revolution"
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  • 182 Studierende
  • 17 Lernmaterialien

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Q:
What is Lewin's field theory?
A:
- The first major systematic theory of social behaviour in psychology 
- B = f (P, E): (Behaviour is a function of a person in an environment)
  • Behaviour is dynamic, emergent
  • The person behaves in the context of the "whole" of the environment 
  • The environment that matters is the environment as the person perceives it
  • Mathematical theory: Like other Gestalt theorists, Lewin thought that social psychology could be made scientific by appeal to mathematics 
Q:
What was psychology like prior to WW1?
A:
- studies of suggestibility, particularly that of crowds
Q:
What was psychology like in the 1920s?
A:
- emergence of an "individualist" social psychology (the Allport's, esp. Floyd)
Q:
What was Lewin's influence on post-war psychology?
A:
- Centre of Group Dynamics at MIT in 1944
- "Action Research:" Applied research into ethnic housing discrimination 
- Key slogans:
  • "Nothing so practical as a good theory"
  • "Shuttling between the lab and the field"
- Lewin's dies prematurely in 1947, but many of his students took forward his vision for a scientific social psychology 
Q:
What was psychology like in the 1960s?
A:
- The era of group experiments (notably Milgram)
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
What was psychology like in the 1930s?
A:
- Gestalt influence: Kurt Lewin, but also Sherif and Asch
Q:
What was psychology like in the 1940s?
A:
- WW2 changes thoughts about race and group hatred
Q:
Who was Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919)?
A:
- Leader of the "Nancy school" of hypnotism
- Studied individual and group differences in "suggestability"
- Joseph Delboeuf (1831-1896) debunked studies by Alfred Binet and Charles Fere with Charcot as evidence of suggestion
Q:
What was psychology like in the 1950s?
A:
- Cold war era of conformity: Asch studies
- After Lewin dies, his students continue: Festinger's Cognitive Dissonance
Q:
Who was Floyd Allport?
A:
- Attack on the "group fallacy"
  • "All theories which partake of the group fallacy have the unfortunate consequence of diverting attention from the true locus of cause and effect, namely, the behaviour mechanism of the individual" - Floyd Allport, Social Psychology, 1924, page 9
- Floyd and Gordon Allport develop individual measures of personality traits, values, and attitudes
  • Social psychology starts to talk about the social as the individual constructs it
Q:
Who was Kurt Lewin (1890-1947)?
A:
- Born in "Prussia", middle-class Jewish background
- Active in social movements (women's rights)
- Part of the "Gestalt" school in Berlin in 1920s
  • PhD advisor was Carl Stumpf of "Clever Hans" fame
  • Supervised PhD of Bluma Zeigarnik
- Influenced by the "Frankfurt School" (Freudian Marxists)
- Emigrated to USA in 1933
  • Possibly missed a job at Stanford due to anti-Semitism, we don't quite know...
Q:
How did cognitive dissonance and attitude change dominate the 1960s?
A:
- "Cognitive Dissonance" was understood to be an unpleasant state of arousal that causes attitude and behaviour change
- Proposed by Leon Festinger (Lewin student)
    - The insufficient justification experiment
  • Students engage in a boring task
  • Must then brief the next student that the task is interesting for a trivial reward ($1) or a large one ($20)
  • "Real" attitudes to the experiment recorded
- Festinger at al (1959) - in the middle of the "Cognitive Revolution"
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