Research In Health at University Of South Australia | Flashcards & Summaries

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Terry has undergone an intervention to reduce his sugar intake (measured in grams/day) with a simple, 2-week, AB design, recording his behaviour throughout using a diary.  From looking at the graph, you think there may have been a change in level, and a change in rate in the intervention period compared to the baseline period.  Which graphical tools will you use to help the reader to notice the same patterns that you do?

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Mean bars could be used to illustrate a change in level. Trend lines could be used to illustrate a change in rate. Trend lines could be added using the Nugent (2001) method, superimposing a straight line that connects the first and last points in each phase.

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Explain is meant by Single Systems Designs, describing the important characteristics of these designs.


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The behaviour of an individual, or group is measured before and after an intervention designed to elicit behavioural change. The target behaviour is defined, the intervention is developed and implemented, and change is evaluated. The most basic design is AB, with a single baseline (A) and intervention (B) phase.

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What is the difference between risk and odds?


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They are relative measures, both focusing on the number of new cases in a time period. Odds: relative to the number of people who didn’t become a case during that time period. Risk: relative to the number of people in the population at risk at the start of that period

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What do we call a design where we recruit participants who do not have the outcome of interest, follow them over time, and record who develops the outcome during the study?


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Cohort study

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In time-to-event analysis, what is censoring? 


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Some individuals will leave the study before it finishes, without experiencing the event of interest. If these individuals are not included, we lost their potential contribution (i.e. remaining for a certain time in the study, event free).

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If my dependent variable is whether participants experience a heart attack (yes/no), I could analyse my data by:


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Calculating an odds ratio, conducting binary logistic regression and calculating a relative risk

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A model that tries to explain behaviour needs to explain a high percentage of the variance in question. If a study reports that a model explains 67% of the variance in the outcome behaviour (e.g. increased physical activity levels) you can conclude that:


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the model does help us understand what drives increased physical activity levels

the model is adequate as a large percentage of the variance is still explained

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If I am interested in not only whether a particular health event occurs, but also the time until that event, I might conduct: 

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Survival analysis - whether a disease or event occurs but in how long it takes to occur.  

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Epidemiology is concerned with 


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the frequency and causes of disease in different populations. Also prevention strategies and treatments

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What is morbidity

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a disease that may not in and of itself cause death, but that may cause subsequent health issues that may be fatal 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Cross-sectional studies involve  


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Sampling at a single time point

Used to investigate differences in the prevalence of a diseases in different, pre-existing groups. 

Causality cannot be inferred 



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In an equivalence trial:

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the minimum clinically important difference in measures 

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Q:

Terry has undergone an intervention to reduce his sugar intake (measured in grams/day) with a simple, 2-week, AB design, recording his behaviour throughout using a diary.  From looking at the graph, you think there may have been a change in level, and a change in rate in the intervention period compared to the baseline period.  Which graphical tools will you use to help the reader to notice the same patterns that you do?

A:

Mean bars could be used to illustrate a change in level. Trend lines could be used to illustrate a change in rate. Trend lines could be added using the Nugent (2001) method, superimposing a straight line that connects the first and last points in each phase.

Q:

Explain is meant by Single Systems Designs, describing the important characteristics of these designs.


A:

The behaviour of an individual, or group is measured before and after an intervention designed to elicit behavioural change. The target behaviour is defined, the intervention is developed and implemented, and change is evaluated. The most basic design is AB, with a single baseline (A) and intervention (B) phase.

Q:

What is the difference between risk and odds?


A:

They are relative measures, both focusing on the number of new cases in a time period. Odds: relative to the number of people who didn’t become a case during that time period. Risk: relative to the number of people in the population at risk at the start of that period

Q:

What do we call a design where we recruit participants who do not have the outcome of interest, follow them over time, and record who develops the outcome during the study?


A:

Cohort study

Q:

In time-to-event analysis, what is censoring? 


A:

Some individuals will leave the study before it finishes, without experiencing the event of interest. If these individuals are not included, we lost their potential contribution (i.e. remaining for a certain time in the study, event free).

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Q:

If my dependent variable is whether participants experience a heart attack (yes/no), I could analyse my data by:


A:

Calculating an odds ratio, conducting binary logistic regression and calculating a relative risk

Q:

A model that tries to explain behaviour needs to explain a high percentage of the variance in question. If a study reports that a model explains 67% of the variance in the outcome behaviour (e.g. increased physical activity levels) you can conclude that:


A:

the model does help us understand what drives increased physical activity levels

the model is adequate as a large percentage of the variance is still explained

Q:

If I am interested in not only whether a particular health event occurs, but also the time until that event, I might conduct: 

A:

Survival analysis - whether a disease or event occurs but in how long it takes to occur.  

Q:

Epidemiology is concerned with 


A:

the frequency and causes of disease in different populations. Also prevention strategies and treatments

Q:

What is morbidity

A:

a disease that may not in and of itself cause death, but that may cause subsequent health issues that may be fatal 

Q:

Cross-sectional studies involve  


A:

Sampling at a single time point

Used to investigate differences in the prevalence of a diseases in different, pre-existing groups. 

Causality cannot be inferred 



Q:

In an equivalence trial:

A:

the minimum clinically important difference in measures 

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