Epidemiology at University Of South Africa | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für epidemiology an der University of South Africa

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What are the types of cohort study?

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  • Prospective - identifies cohort, measures exposure then follow up sample. Expensive, long time follow up and large sample size.
  • Retrospective - identifies sample and exposure status from historical records and investigates risk of outcome in comparison groups. misclassification bias, limited by accuracy, incompleteness etc. data on confounding often variables missing
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What are the types of epidemiological study designs?

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  1. Experimental 
  2. Observational
(also analytical and Descriptive)
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Observational (non-experimental) studies definition

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Epidemiologists observe what happens in populations with limited or no control on naturally occurring phenomena i.e. behaviours and experiences.

Examples of observational: cohort, cross-sectional and ecological studies 

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Describe primary care level:

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First level of formal care. Staff act as a first point of consultation for all patients, and know their families and communities. Also provide continuity of care.

First place where people look for advice.

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Factors that determine population size:

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1. Birth
2. Migration
3. Deaths

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What is a case series or case report study design?

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  • A detailed report of disease description. May be a new disease, or unusual in: nature, occurance, in which population it occured.
  • Helps identify new disease and increase knowledge of a health condition 
  • Limited information provided and cannot establish causality 
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the ultimate aims of epidemiology...
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1-to eliminate or reduce the health problems or it's consequences.

2-to promote the health and well-being of the society as a whole.
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What is a cohort study?

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  • Groups of people with common characteristic observed over time to investigate the development of an outcome of interest 
  • eligibility defined by criteria 
  • Grouping based on difference in levels/experience of exposure 
  • Groups may be binary (exposed/not exposed) or varying 
  • incidence or follow up studies 
  • tests hypotheses in relation to a disease and risk factors 
  • good to study natural course of disease and survival 
  • establishes association between disease and risk factors 
  • Comparison group similar to exposed bar the factor under investigation
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Aims of epidemiology according to IEA
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1-To describe the distribution and magnitude of health and disease

2-to identify etiological factors in the pathogenesis of disease

3-to provide the data essential to the planning...
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Limitations of ecological studies?

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  • Risk factor and outcome measured at same time - which preceded? 
  • ecological fallacy
  • no comparison can lead to bias
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What is a cross-sectional study?

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  • Selects a sample that represents the whole population
  • gives a snapshot of condition
  • can be used to study prevalence of disease and risk factors
  • can measure health issues in a short period of time 
  • can explore relationship between variables and generate hypotheses
  • used to discover undiagnosed cases of disease in community 
  • inexpensive 
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What is an ecological study?

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  • Investigates the prevalence of disease and a risk factor on a population level 
  • Analyses at a population level 
  • inexpensive, quick and generates hypotheses 
  • Easier to use for evaluation effectiveness of population based interventions 
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Q:

What are the types of cohort study?

A:
  • Prospective - identifies cohort, measures exposure then follow up sample. Expensive, long time follow up and large sample size.
  • Retrospective - identifies sample and exposure status from historical records and investigates risk of outcome in comparison groups. misclassification bias, limited by accuracy, incompleteness etc. data on confounding often variables missing
Q:

What are the types of epidemiological study designs?

A:
  1. Experimental 
  2. Observational
(also analytical and Descriptive)
Q:

Observational (non-experimental) studies definition

A:

Epidemiologists observe what happens in populations with limited or no control on naturally occurring phenomena i.e. behaviours and experiences.

Examples of observational: cohort, cross-sectional and ecological studies 

Q:

Describe primary care level:

A:

First level of formal care. Staff act as a first point of consultation for all patients, and know their families and communities. Also provide continuity of care.

First place where people look for advice.

Q:

Factors that determine population size:

A:

1. Birth
2. Migration
3. Deaths

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What is a case series or case report study design?

A:
  • A detailed report of disease description. May be a new disease, or unusual in: nature, occurance, in which population it occured.
  • Helps identify new disease and increase knowledge of a health condition 
  • Limited information provided and cannot establish causality 
Q:
the ultimate aims of epidemiology...
A:
1-to eliminate or reduce the health problems or it's consequences.

2-to promote the health and well-being of the society as a whole.
Q:

What is a cohort study?

A:
  • Groups of people with common characteristic observed over time to investigate the development of an outcome of interest 
  • eligibility defined by criteria 
  • Grouping based on difference in levels/experience of exposure 
  • Groups may be binary (exposed/not exposed) or varying 
  • incidence or follow up studies 
  • tests hypotheses in relation to a disease and risk factors 
  • good to study natural course of disease and survival 
  • establishes association between disease and risk factors 
  • Comparison group similar to exposed bar the factor under investigation
Q:
Aims of epidemiology according to IEA
A:
1-To describe the distribution and magnitude of health and disease

2-to identify etiological factors in the pathogenesis of disease

3-to provide the data essential to the planning...
Q:

Limitations of ecological studies?

A:
  • Risk factor and outcome measured at same time - which preceded? 
  • ecological fallacy
  • no comparison can lead to bias
Q:

What is a cross-sectional study?

A:
  • Selects a sample that represents the whole population
  • gives a snapshot of condition
  • can be used to study prevalence of disease and risk factors
  • can measure health issues in a short period of time 
  • can explore relationship between variables and generate hypotheses
  • used to discover undiagnosed cases of disease in community 
  • inexpensive 
Q:

What is an ecological study?

A:
  • Investigates the prevalence of disease and a risk factor on a population level 
  • Analyses at a population level 
  • inexpensive, quick and generates hypotheses 
  • Easier to use for evaluation effectiveness of population based interventions 
epidemiology

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