Digestive System at University Of Prince Edward Island | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Digestive System an der University of Prince Edward Island

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How does jaw structure differ between:

i. Acanthodians and primitive actinoptergyians

ii. Bowfin/ salmon 

iii. Protrusible jaw 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

i. Acanthodians and Primitive Actinoptergyians: 

- Large mouth, hinge of jaw under braincase

- Premaxilla and maxilla immobile

- Jaw not protrusible


ii. Bowfin/ salmon:

- Hinge of mouth still far back 

- Premaxilla fixed, maxilla free 


iii. Protrusible jaw:

- Hinge of mandible moves forward, mouth smaller

- Maxilla and premaxilla pivot forward as mandible opens 

- Lengthens head  

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Adaptations of the tongue in nectar-feeding birds 

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May form an elongated 'tube' that allows nectar to be gathered by capillary action 

- May have brushy tips that 'collect' nectar and permit the bird to 'lap it up' 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Which glands and organs are associated with the digestive system?

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Glands: tongue, teeth, and oral

Organs: pancreas, liver, gallbladder 

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Three different types of teeth (buccal cavity)

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1. Acrodont dentition: shorter roots, fused with bone. Found in telosts.

2. Pleurodont dentition: longer roots, superficially attached. Found in many amphibians and some reptiles

3. Thecodont dentition: root of tooth is completely enclosed in bone socket. Found in mammals. 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Primary and secondary palates in fish and amphibians (buccal cavity)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Complete roof to the mouth which is the primary unmodified palate (floor of neurocranium) 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Primary and secondary palates in reptiles (buccal cavity)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Start to see evolution of secondary palate 

- Turtles: maxilla, premaxilla, and palatine bones provide a partial secondary plate

- Alligators: complete bony secondary palate 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How is the gut formed?

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As the embryo lengthens, the endoderm is drawn out into a tube. The tube breaks through the ectoderm at each end. 

- Midgut degenerates

- Foregut; oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine

- Hindgut; large intestine, cloaca 


Stomeodeum = mouth end

Proctodeum = anus end

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Primary and secondary palates in mammals (buccal cavity)


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- Have a functional complete secondary palate

- Posterior portion is a fleshy soft palate

- Anterior portion is a hard palate 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How does the tongue differ in birds?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- No lingual swellings 

- Musculature greatly reduced

- Often designed to keep live prey from escaping (e.g. have spines)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Process of tooth development 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- Epidermis produces enamel organ/knot. Mesenchyme cells of dermis collect and produce dermal papilla. 

- Ameloblasts secrete enamel and is formed from the enamel organ/knot. Odontoblasts secrete dentin and is formed from the dermal papilla. 

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Where did teeth derive from and what are they similar to?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Teeth almost certainly derivatives of dermal armour that covered early fish. They are very similar to placoid scales. 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Arcodont dentition (teeth)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

shorter roots, fused with bone. Found in telosts.

Lösung ausblenden
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Q:

How does jaw structure differ between:

i. Acanthodians and primitive actinoptergyians

ii. Bowfin/ salmon 

iii. Protrusible jaw 

A:

i. Acanthodians and Primitive Actinoptergyians: 

- Large mouth, hinge of jaw under braincase

- Premaxilla and maxilla immobile

- Jaw not protrusible


ii. Bowfin/ salmon:

- Hinge of mouth still far back 

- Premaxilla fixed, maxilla free 


iii. Protrusible jaw:

- Hinge of mandible moves forward, mouth smaller

- Maxilla and premaxilla pivot forward as mandible opens 

- Lengthens head  

Q:

Adaptations of the tongue in nectar-feeding birds 

A:

May form an elongated 'tube' that allows nectar to be gathered by capillary action 

- May have brushy tips that 'collect' nectar and permit the bird to 'lap it up' 

Q:

Which glands and organs are associated with the digestive system?

A:

Glands: tongue, teeth, and oral

Organs: pancreas, liver, gallbladder 

Q:

Three different types of teeth (buccal cavity)

A:

1. Acrodont dentition: shorter roots, fused with bone. Found in telosts.

2. Pleurodont dentition: longer roots, superficially attached. Found in many amphibians and some reptiles

3. Thecodont dentition: root of tooth is completely enclosed in bone socket. Found in mammals. 

Q:

Primary and secondary palates in fish and amphibians (buccal cavity)

A:

Complete roof to the mouth which is the primary unmodified palate (floor of neurocranium) 

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Primary and secondary palates in reptiles (buccal cavity)

A:

Start to see evolution of secondary palate 

- Turtles: maxilla, premaxilla, and palatine bones provide a partial secondary plate

- Alligators: complete bony secondary palate 

Q:

How is the gut formed?

A:

As the embryo lengthens, the endoderm is drawn out into a tube. The tube breaks through the ectoderm at each end. 

- Midgut degenerates

- Foregut; oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine

- Hindgut; large intestine, cloaca 


Stomeodeum = mouth end

Proctodeum = anus end

Q:

Primary and secondary palates in mammals (buccal cavity)


A:

- Have a functional complete secondary palate

- Posterior portion is a fleshy soft palate

- Anterior portion is a hard palate 

Q:

How does the tongue differ in birds?

A:

- No lingual swellings 

- Musculature greatly reduced

- Often designed to keep live prey from escaping (e.g. have spines)

Q:

Process of tooth development 

A:

- Epidermis produces enamel organ/knot. Mesenchyme cells of dermis collect and produce dermal papilla. 

- Ameloblasts secrete enamel and is formed from the enamel organ/knot. Odontoblasts secrete dentin and is formed from the dermal papilla. 

Q:

Where did teeth derive from and what are they similar to?

A:

Teeth almost certainly derivatives of dermal armour that covered early fish. They are very similar to placoid scales. 

Q:

Arcodont dentition (teeth)

A:

shorter roots, fused with bone. Found in telosts.

Digestive System

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