GGY156 at University Of Pretoria | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für GGY156 an der University of Pretoria

Greife auf kostenlose Karteikarten, Zusammenfassungen, Übungsaufgaben und Altklausuren für deinen GGY156 Kurs an der University of Pretoria zu.

TESTE DEIN WISSEN

● Explanations of Development and Underdevelopment:

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 Physical geography; the rich “north” mid-latitudes and poverty and underdevelopment in the tropics. Climatic conditions, soil quality, access to natural resources, location (land locked or access to a port) etc. can play a role in the level of development. 

Slave trade and colonialism; the 500+ year history of colonialism and slave trade has played a vital role in shaping the political and economic geography of the contemporary world. It allowed Western European countries an initial economic advantage by gaining control of territory, natural resources, labour and markets.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

○ Central city decline

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■ The dominance of the CBD was tied to its focus as a mass transit hub..

 ■ With the increase in private transportation there was a mass exodus of the middle class to suburban locales.

 ■ Populations moved out taking with them their purchasing power and a loss of tax base in the inner-city. 

■ The old CBD was viewed as aging, congested and inefficient. 

■ Impacted the social geographies of cities - wealthy, middle class suburbs, poor and blighted inner-city neighbourhoods. 

■ Think of inner-city neighbourhoods such as Hillbrow in Johannesburg.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

○ Five locational tendencies of high-tech industries

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■ Proximity to major research universities and other research institutions. 

■ Avoidance of areas with strong labour unionisation.

■ Locally available venture capital and entrepreneurial skills. 

■ Good quality of life - good climate, scenery, recreation, culture, etc. 

■ Availability of first-rate communication and transportation facilities.

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● Categories of activity

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○ Primary activities - harvest or extract something from the Earth. 

○ Secondary activities - adding value to materials through the process of manufacturing.

 ○ Tertiary activities - provides services.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

● Challenges and opportunities facing developing countries

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Climate crises and natural hazards.

 Foreign debt - many countries borrowed money heavily in the 1960s and 1970s for development projects like infrastructure, but widespread economic growth did not follow, pushing many countries into debt. This has led to structural adjustment programs and refinancing of loans. Debt relief has been offered to many of the world's poorest countries. Watch more here on Sri-Lanka’s recent default on their foreign debt.


 Land ownership - resolving the issue of land ownership is critical to improving the lives of poor residents. Urban slum dwellers without registered land ownership are vulnerable to slum clearance. Landlessness in rural areas means that people have limited access to resources to improve their livelihood. Access to land becomes an asset which can be used, rented or traded. Land reform and redistribution is a common strategy used to redress landlessness. In some countries it has been more successful than others. Here is a short video on South Africa’s land issue.


Gender inequality - lags behind in many parts of the developing world. Strict religious or cultural traditions limit the participation of women in the economy in many parts of the world. For greater development women's participation in a wider range of economic activities are needed. Some public policies have focused on addressing gender inequality. Watch more here on achieving greater gender equality.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

● Strategies for development

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Strategies have been largely influenced by modernisation theory, i.e. a Western development model of urbanisation and industrialisation. International organisations like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) - help stabilise currencies and pay off debts and also provide loans for development projects.

 

A shift to neoliberalism in the 1980s (a focus on the free market and private sector and less government intervention and widespread deregulation). Major focus on “human capital” since the 1980s - educated skilled workforce. The important role of remittances, flows of money sent home to the developing world.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Global competition and new distance shrinking technologies

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

regularly upset economic patterns, creating new centers of activity and influencing a new international division of labour.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

● Modifications to least-cost theory

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

○ Substitution principle; possible to replace one declining amount of one input with an increase in another. For example an increase in transport cost, for access to cheaper land rent.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

● The location of urban settlements;

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

○ The location of cities, its centrality, physical characteristics of the site, access to resources, transportation etc. has an impact on the functionality of the city. 

○ The concept of “site and situation” becomes important when discussing the location of cities. ○ Cities from their inception offered an economic base or a central market, therefore often located along important transportation or trade routes. 

○ Cities as central places - act as a marketplace for surrounding rural areas or smaller towns.



Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

■ Locational decision can be influenced by;

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

● Raw materials (access, quality, amount of raw materials). 

● Power supply (energy intensive industries, cheap power, access to power).

● Labour (cost, amount available, skilled/educated). 

● Market (size, nature and distribution of markets). 

● Transportation modes (access, cost, types of transport).

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

● High-technology manufacturing;

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

○ Classic location theories are not effective in explaining the location of high-tech industries. 

○ Location considerations more focused on human talent - engineers, scientists, skilled technicians, research and development. 

○ High-tech industries include electronics, communication, computers, software, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, aerospace, etc. ○ Agglomeration economies are extremely important for high-tech industries. 

○ A prime example of a high-tech cluster is Silicon Valley in California. Watch more here. 

○ Highly international commodity chains. For example Apple products, designed and conceptualised in the US, but assembled in China.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Locational decision can be influenced by;

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

● Raw materials (access, quality, amount of raw materials). 

● Power supply (energy intensive industries, cheap power, access to power).

Lösung ausblenden
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Q:

● Explanations of Development and Underdevelopment:

A:

 Physical geography; the rich “north” mid-latitudes and poverty and underdevelopment in the tropics. Climatic conditions, soil quality, access to natural resources, location (land locked or access to a port) etc. can play a role in the level of development. 

Slave trade and colonialism; the 500+ year history of colonialism and slave trade has played a vital role in shaping the political and economic geography of the contemporary world. It allowed Western European countries an initial economic advantage by gaining control of territory, natural resources, labour and markets.

Q:

○ Central city decline

A:

■ The dominance of the CBD was tied to its focus as a mass transit hub..

 ■ With the increase in private transportation there was a mass exodus of the middle class to suburban locales.

 ■ Populations moved out taking with them their purchasing power and a loss of tax base in the inner-city. 

■ The old CBD was viewed as aging, congested and inefficient. 

■ Impacted the social geographies of cities - wealthy, middle class suburbs, poor and blighted inner-city neighbourhoods. 

■ Think of inner-city neighbourhoods such as Hillbrow in Johannesburg.

Q:

○ Five locational tendencies of high-tech industries

A:

■ Proximity to major research universities and other research institutions. 

■ Avoidance of areas with strong labour unionisation.

■ Locally available venture capital and entrepreneurial skills. 

■ Good quality of life - good climate, scenery, recreation, culture, etc. 

■ Availability of first-rate communication and transportation facilities.

Q:

● Categories of activity

A:

○ Primary activities - harvest or extract something from the Earth. 

○ Secondary activities - adding value to materials through the process of manufacturing.

 ○ Tertiary activities - provides services.

Q:

● Challenges and opportunities facing developing countries

A:

Climate crises and natural hazards.

 Foreign debt - many countries borrowed money heavily in the 1960s and 1970s for development projects like infrastructure, but widespread economic growth did not follow, pushing many countries into debt. This has led to structural adjustment programs and refinancing of loans. Debt relief has been offered to many of the world's poorest countries. Watch more here on Sri-Lanka’s recent default on their foreign debt.


 Land ownership - resolving the issue of land ownership is critical to improving the lives of poor residents. Urban slum dwellers without registered land ownership are vulnerable to slum clearance. Landlessness in rural areas means that people have limited access to resources to improve their livelihood. Access to land becomes an asset which can be used, rented or traded. Land reform and redistribution is a common strategy used to redress landlessness. In some countries it has been more successful than others. Here is a short video on South Africa’s land issue.


Gender inequality - lags behind in many parts of the developing world. Strict religious or cultural traditions limit the participation of women in the economy in many parts of the world. For greater development women's participation in a wider range of economic activities are needed. Some public policies have focused on addressing gender inequality. Watch more here on achieving greater gender equality.

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

● Strategies for development

A:

Strategies have been largely influenced by modernisation theory, i.e. a Western development model of urbanisation and industrialisation. International organisations like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) - help stabilise currencies and pay off debts and also provide loans for development projects.

 

A shift to neoliberalism in the 1980s (a focus on the free market and private sector and less government intervention and widespread deregulation). Major focus on “human capital” since the 1980s - educated skilled workforce. The important role of remittances, flows of money sent home to the developing world.

Q:

Global competition and new distance shrinking technologies

A:

regularly upset economic patterns, creating new centers of activity and influencing a new international division of labour.

Q:

● Modifications to least-cost theory

A:

○ Substitution principle; possible to replace one declining amount of one input with an increase in another. For example an increase in transport cost, for access to cheaper land rent.

Q:

● The location of urban settlements;

A:

○ The location of cities, its centrality, physical characteristics of the site, access to resources, transportation etc. has an impact on the functionality of the city. 

○ The concept of “site and situation” becomes important when discussing the location of cities. ○ Cities from their inception offered an economic base or a central market, therefore often located along important transportation or trade routes. 

○ Cities as central places - act as a marketplace for surrounding rural areas or smaller towns.



Q:

■ Locational decision can be influenced by;

A:

● Raw materials (access, quality, amount of raw materials). 

● Power supply (energy intensive industries, cheap power, access to power).

● Labour (cost, amount available, skilled/educated). 

● Market (size, nature and distribution of markets). 

● Transportation modes (access, cost, types of transport).

Q:

● High-technology manufacturing;

A:

○ Classic location theories are not effective in explaining the location of high-tech industries. 

○ Location considerations more focused on human talent - engineers, scientists, skilled technicians, research and development. 

○ High-tech industries include electronics, communication, computers, software, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, aerospace, etc. ○ Agglomeration economies are extremely important for high-tech industries. 

○ A prime example of a high-tech cluster is Silicon Valley in California. Watch more here. 

○ Highly international commodity chains. For example Apple products, designed and conceptualised in the US, but assembled in China.

Q:

Locational decision can be influenced by;

A:

● Raw materials (access, quality, amount of raw materials). 

● Power supply (energy intensive industries, cheap power, access to power).

GGY156

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