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What is naïve psychology ?

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often called "theory of mind": understanding other people’s mental states (beliefs, emotions, thoughts, desires…) 

2 theories explaining how we create it:

  • the theory theory: we create a complete theoretical model of others’ behaviors and mental states 
  • the simulation theory: we understand others’ behavior & mental states because we put ourselves in their mental shoes & simulate what they feel/think, based on our past experiences
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How can false beliefs be studied in infants?

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  • nonlinguistic, implicit paradigm by Onishi & Baillargeon (2005) 
  • proved that 15-month infants can infer other people’s false beliefs (c.f. figure above for stimuli)

Paradigm:

  • Two boxes were shown to an infant. A person would put the object inside a box. In the true belief (TB) condition, the object would magically move to the other box when the person could see it. 
  • In the false belief (FB) condition, the object would move once to the other box, while the person was looking, and would move a second time to the previous box when the person was not present.

Results:

  • Infants during the TB condition would look more, meaning they were more surprised, when the person looks inside the box where the object is not present, compared to when the person looks inside the correct box, i.e., they expect the person to know inside which box the object is. 
  • Infants during the FB condition would look more when the person looks inside the box where the object actually is, compared to when the person looks inside the box they last saw the object going (c.f. figure for the results), i.e., they do not expect the person to know where the object is because the object moved after the person left
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What is natural pedagogy?

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According to Gergely & Csibra (2009), teaching is a human-specific evolutionary adaptation for the transmission of non-transparent knowledge, such as tool usage, word meanings, habits, customs, cultural/social practices, etc. 

  • When learning transparent knowledge, one can learn by observation and then imitation. 
  • When learning non-transparent knowledge, one is not able to learn solely by observation- you either emulate, trying to understand what the meaning is beneath, or you reach to somebody for teaching.

Thanks to teaching, human knowledge is cumulative, and the offspring add on top of what is already known

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What are the evolutionary bases of pedagogy?

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The evolutionary bases of pedagogy can be rooted in our ability to understand the rationality and teleology or goal-directedness in the self and others (each action other or the self has an objective, and was planned), rational imitation skills (inferring the meaning of an unknown action while imitating the movements), and the ability to recognize ostensive communication (behavior that signals the intention to communicate something; it can be a gesture such as pointing).

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How do infants react to ostensive communication cues?

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Infants seem also able to recognize ostensive communication cues, such as gaze following, pointing, or infant-directed speech, and act more attentive in response to these cues. They seem to understand that they are undergoing a “teaching moment”, and their learning is affected by ostensive cues 



inability to efficiently exploit ostensive cues is usually an early indication of social issues in autism.


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What was the constructivist theory of development again?

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Jean Piaget (1896-1980) 

constructivist theory of development (children actively construct different mental schemes through experience with the world)

assumed that young infants lacked many concepts and considerable knowledge of the physical worlds, e.g. lack of object permanence, lack of understanding of the physical world

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What do babies know about event probabilities?

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  • we couldn't name the probability numerically but we are able to understand the concept and can calculate more or less intuitively
  • human calculation of probability either derives from the frequency of an event (bottom-up) or by anabstract representation of probabilities applied to a specific event (top-down)
  • 12 month olds understand frequent and infrequent events concepts and can compute probability based in physical constraints or experience
  • this is shown by babies longer looking times indicating surprise for an impossible event
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Can animals do naive mathematics?

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Yes, approximate number system and subitizing are also found in animals. They underly survival as bees need to choose the place with the highest number of flowers for example. Also it's easier for monkeys and humans to order magnitudes if there is a greater numerical distance within number line.

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Does naive mathematics arise before or after formal education?

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It arises before any formal education. Unlike formal mathematics11, it is not affected by culture. To learn formal mathematics, you need explicit teaching. Thus, you first need to know the teacher’s language and then you need to be able to manipulate the formal mathematical language

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How does the approximate system develop in infants?

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  • birth: 1:3 ratio 
  • 6-month-olds: 1:2 ratio 
  • 9-month-olds: 2:3 ratio 
  • only involving numbers 4 or greater


  • amodality
  • doesn’t work for continuous variables (e.g. total surface)  
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Define "semiotics"

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the study of signs and symbols and their use or interpretation (the relationships they have with the objects they are connected to)
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What is the "other-race effect"?  (nature vs. nurture?)

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adults have a better memory and better discrimination for faces of their own ethnicity/race 

might not be innate, Caucasian infants at birth did not show any preference (looking time paradigm) between Caucasic and non-Caucasic (African, Chinese, Asian9 ) faces, whereas at 3 months old they showed a preference (statistically significant higher looking time) for own-race faces 

attunement for own-race faces is probably the result of familiarity, i.e., it is the result of perceptual attunement to their specific environment, where own-race faces are the most frequent (contact hypothesis)

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Q:

What is naïve psychology ?

A:

often called "theory of mind": understanding other people’s mental states (beliefs, emotions, thoughts, desires…) 

2 theories explaining how we create it:

  • the theory theory: we create a complete theoretical model of others’ behaviors and mental states 
  • the simulation theory: we understand others’ behavior & mental states because we put ourselves in their mental shoes & simulate what they feel/think, based on our past experiences
Q:

How can false beliefs be studied in infants?

A:
  • nonlinguistic, implicit paradigm by Onishi & Baillargeon (2005) 
  • proved that 15-month infants can infer other people’s false beliefs (c.f. figure above for stimuli)

Paradigm:

  • Two boxes were shown to an infant. A person would put the object inside a box. In the true belief (TB) condition, the object would magically move to the other box when the person could see it. 
  • In the false belief (FB) condition, the object would move once to the other box, while the person was looking, and would move a second time to the previous box when the person was not present.

Results:

  • Infants during the TB condition would look more, meaning they were more surprised, when the person looks inside the box where the object is not present, compared to when the person looks inside the correct box, i.e., they expect the person to know inside which box the object is. 
  • Infants during the FB condition would look more when the person looks inside the box where the object actually is, compared to when the person looks inside the box they last saw the object going (c.f. figure for the results), i.e., they do not expect the person to know where the object is because the object moved after the person left
Q:

What is natural pedagogy?

A:

According to Gergely & Csibra (2009), teaching is a human-specific evolutionary adaptation for the transmission of non-transparent knowledge, such as tool usage, word meanings, habits, customs, cultural/social practices, etc. 

  • When learning transparent knowledge, one can learn by observation and then imitation. 
  • When learning non-transparent knowledge, one is not able to learn solely by observation- you either emulate, trying to understand what the meaning is beneath, or you reach to somebody for teaching.

Thanks to teaching, human knowledge is cumulative, and the offspring add on top of what is already known

Q:

What are the evolutionary bases of pedagogy?

A:

The evolutionary bases of pedagogy can be rooted in our ability to understand the rationality and teleology or goal-directedness in the self and others (each action other or the self has an objective, and was planned), rational imitation skills (inferring the meaning of an unknown action while imitating the movements), and the ability to recognize ostensive communication (behavior that signals the intention to communicate something; it can be a gesture such as pointing).

Q:

How do infants react to ostensive communication cues?

A:

Infants seem also able to recognize ostensive communication cues, such as gaze following, pointing, or infant-directed speech, and act more attentive in response to these cues. They seem to understand that they are undergoing a “teaching moment”, and their learning is affected by ostensive cues 



inability to efficiently exploit ostensive cues is usually an early indication of social issues in autism.


Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What was the constructivist theory of development again?

A:

Jean Piaget (1896-1980) 

constructivist theory of development (children actively construct different mental schemes through experience with the world)

assumed that young infants lacked many concepts and considerable knowledge of the physical worlds, e.g. lack of object permanence, lack of understanding of the physical world

Q:

What do babies know about event probabilities?

A:
  • we couldn't name the probability numerically but we are able to understand the concept and can calculate more or less intuitively
  • human calculation of probability either derives from the frequency of an event (bottom-up) or by anabstract representation of probabilities applied to a specific event (top-down)
  • 12 month olds understand frequent and infrequent events concepts and can compute probability based in physical constraints or experience
  • this is shown by babies longer looking times indicating surprise for an impossible event
Q:

Can animals do naive mathematics?

A:

Yes, approximate number system and subitizing are also found in animals. They underly survival as bees need to choose the place with the highest number of flowers for example. Also it's easier for monkeys and humans to order magnitudes if there is a greater numerical distance within number line.

Q:

Does naive mathematics arise before or after formal education?

A:

It arises before any formal education. Unlike formal mathematics11, it is not affected by culture. To learn formal mathematics, you need explicit teaching. Thus, you first need to know the teacher’s language and then you need to be able to manipulate the formal mathematical language

Q:

How does the approximate system develop in infants?

A:
  • birth: 1:3 ratio 
  • 6-month-olds: 1:2 ratio 
  • 9-month-olds: 2:3 ratio 
  • only involving numbers 4 or greater


  • amodality
  • doesn’t work for continuous variables (e.g. total surface)  
Q:

Define "semiotics"

A:
the study of signs and symbols and their use or interpretation (the relationships they have with the objects they are connected to)
Q:

What is the "other-race effect"?  (nature vs. nurture?)

A:

adults have a better memory and better discrimination for faces of their own ethnicity/race 

might not be innate, Caucasian infants at birth did not show any preference (looking time paradigm) between Caucasic and non-Caucasic (African, Chinese, Asian9 ) faces, whereas at 3 months old they showed a preference (statistically significant higher looking time) for own-race faces 

attunement for own-race faces is probably the result of familiarity, i.e., it is the result of perceptual attunement to their specific environment, where own-race faces are the most frequent (contact hypothesis)

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