Lecture 4 - Spinal Cord & Brain Stem at University Of Padua | Flashcards & Summaries

Select your language

Suggested languages for you:
Log In Start studying!

Lernmaterialien für Lecture 4 - Spinal Cord & Brain Stem an der University of Padua

Greife auf kostenlose Karteikarten, Zusammenfassungen, Übungsaufgaben und Altklausuren für deinen Lecture 4 - Spinal Cord & Brain Stem Kurs an der University of Padua zu.

TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is the function of the spinal cord?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The spinal cord carries motor commands and receives sensory information from the periphery, each nerve for a specific district.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain the anterior funiculus.

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  •  includes  all fibres between  the  anterior  fissure  andthe anterior lateral sulcus
  • continues bilaterally with a small commissure
    (= white commissure), which connects the two funiculi. 
  • Mainly motor, includes the ...
    • vestibulospinal and tecto-spinal tracts (coordination of the
      movements  of  the  trunk  with  those  of  the  head)
    • the  ventral cortico-spinal tract  (voluntary  movements  of  the  trunk). 
  • Has  a  sensory  portion as well
    • ventral spino-thalamic tract (painful and temperature-related
      info to the brain)
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe the dorsal sensory root of the spinal nerves.

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • alar plate receives information to relay it and generate a response
  • dorsal root comes from a group of neurons already found outside the neural tube (derived from the neural crest) = dorsal root ganglion (= group of neurons whose somas are located outside the main axis of the NS)
  • formed by the bodies of neurons of the PNS
    • those grow a particular T-shaped axon: one branch goes to the periphery and forms sensory receptors at the level of the body (skin, muscles, ...) -> gathers sensory information from outside and inside the body
    • other branch enters the spinal cord to relay the information and forward it to the cortex (sensory afference may be blocked at the level of the root to stop pain in an entire limb, e.g. in syndromes associated with chronic pain)
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe the internal organization of the grey matter.

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Ventral horn: composed of 3 main groups of neurons (medio-lateral gradient)

  1. Medial neurons: innervation of the midline of the body (trunk)
  2. Central neurons:  innervation of the proximal part of the limb, mainly found in the cervical, lumbar and sacral myelomeres (innervate the diaphragm (= muscular structure that serves as a boundary between two cavities, keeping their contents in their anatomical compartments) that controls breathing by expanding the thoracic cavity to allow the lungs to fill up with air, e.g. in ALS degeneration of these motor neurons will lead to death via cardio-respiratory arrest) and the pelvic diaphragm
  3. Lateral neurons: innervation of the distal part of the limb (e.g. fingers), completely missing the thoracic myelomeres = innervation only of axial structures

Distinction between ventrally and dorsally located neurons: ventral = extensor muscles, dorsal = flexor muscles


Dorsal horn: contains a series of structures responsible for receiving sensory information from the periphery via the dorsal root ganglion, which enters the spinal cord from the posterior horn

  1. Substantia gelatinosa: apex of the dorsal horn, layer of grey matter specialized nuclei for receiving sensory information (very small neuros acting as a filter for incoming information in the spinal cord, especially for painful stimuli)
  2. Nucleus proprius of the posterior horn: large group of neurons, more medial, receives sensory information concerning gross touch (fine touch is coded in the brain stem, axons ascend directly without synapsis in spinal cord)
  3. Nucleus dorsalis (or Clarke's column): receives proprioceptive information (=body positions, concentration of muscles), important for maintaining balance and coordinating movements
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Rootlets

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Smaller bundle of axons that comes out of the CNS (spinal cord > spinal nerve > 2 distinct rootlets)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Dorsal root ganglion

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Group of neurons whose  somas arelocated outside the main axis of the NS

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Diaphragm

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Controls breathing by expanding the thoracic cavity to allow thelungs to fill up with air

-> in ALS, degeneration of these motor neurons will  eventually  lead to  death  via  cardio-respiratory arrest

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Proprioceptive information

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Information about body position, contraction of muscles that is important for maintaining balance and coordinating movements

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the three levels of functioning of the spinal cord?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  1. Reflex arcs: within one myelomer, sensory info (dorsal root) enters the dorsal horn and is forwarded directly to the motor neurons (ventral horn) -> AP carried to the central motor root =
    activates  the  muscle  through  the  spinal  nerve  =>  immediate  motor  response  to  the  stimulus,
    sensory-motor feedback (sensory input => motor output) = basic principle of the NS.
  2. Simple reflexes: coordination of different myelomeres -> sensory info from one muscle forwarded to the spinal cord, in particular to the same myelomere and close ones => possible motor output at the level
    of  another  muscle 
    -> e.g. burning of a hand causes movement of the whole arm, coordinated at
    different level of the SC to produce a complex  pattern. Unconscious level of functioning, all
    mediated inside the SC.
  3. Cortical  motor  control:  allows the cortex to exert its will on the lower centres (SC) -> typical of
    superior animal species, especially primates. Higher centers can consciously control motor
    functions and suppress reflexes (through interneurons) => voluntary movement. NB! Integration of
    voluntary and involuntary movements -> e.g. walking: voluntary start command but action is kept going indefinitely by the local circuits of the spinal cord (2nd level of functioning), until the upper center decides to stop. This level of functioning implies collaboration between cortex and SC ->
    motor  commands  from  the  cortex  +  continuous  proprioceptive  feedback  from  the  SC to the  brain
    (anatomically  allowed  by  WM  of  the  SC  -> modulation  of  activity  with  efferent  fibers,  feedback
    from afferent fibers).  
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Interpeduncular fossa

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

groove between the peduncles, where some structures of the diencephalon can be identified

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe the ventral motor root of a spinal nerve.

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • derives from axons of the motor neurons found in basal plate
  • those motor neurons grow their axons towards their target structures
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Name and describe three spinal cord pathologies.

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Friedreich’s ataxia: genetic disorder, accumulation of Fe in mytochondria => selective degeneration of  fiber  systems  in  the  SC  ->  posterior  and  dorsal  part  of  the  lateral  funiculus  =  mainly  sensory
    deficits and ataxia
    (lack of movement coordination due to cerebellar malfunction, here bc of lack of inputs).
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): myelin degeneration in the deep parts of the lateral funiculus
    and anterior part of the anterior funiculus,
    caused by the degeneration of the upper motor neurons
    in  the  cortex  (which  later  spreads  to  inferior  structures).  Initially  only  voluntary  movement  is
    impaired,  then  degeneration  of  the  neurons  for  diaphragm  and  intercostal  muscles  =>  cardio-
    respiratory failure
    .
  • Tabes  Dorsalis:  emerges  when  syphilis  spreads  to  the  CNS  (up  to  15-20  years  after  infection)  ->
    patients  lose  sensibility  of  the  lower  part  of  the  body,  due  to  the  degeneration of the posterior
    funiculus
    (after chronic inflammation of the dorsal roots and ganglia). Usually patients start walking
    in a way that damages the feet but do not perceive pain.
Lösung ausblenden
  • 23635 Karteikarten
  • 1593 Studierende
  • 46 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Lecture 4 - Spinal Cord & Brain Stem Kurs an der University of Padua - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

What is the function of the spinal cord?

A:

The spinal cord carries motor commands and receives sensory information from the periphery, each nerve for a specific district.

Q:

Explain the anterior funiculus.

A:
  •  includes  all fibres between  the  anterior  fissure  andthe anterior lateral sulcus
  • continues bilaterally with a small commissure
    (= white commissure), which connects the two funiculi. 
  • Mainly motor, includes the ...
    • vestibulospinal and tecto-spinal tracts (coordination of the
      movements  of  the  trunk  with  those  of  the  head)
    • the  ventral cortico-spinal tract  (voluntary  movements  of  the  trunk). 
  • Has  a  sensory  portion as well
    • ventral spino-thalamic tract (painful and temperature-related
      info to the brain)
Q:

Describe the dorsal sensory root of the spinal nerves.

A:
  • alar plate receives information to relay it and generate a response
  • dorsal root comes from a group of neurons already found outside the neural tube (derived from the neural crest) = dorsal root ganglion (= group of neurons whose somas are located outside the main axis of the NS)
  • formed by the bodies of neurons of the PNS
    • those grow a particular T-shaped axon: one branch goes to the periphery and forms sensory receptors at the level of the body (skin, muscles, ...) -> gathers sensory information from outside and inside the body
    • other branch enters the spinal cord to relay the information and forward it to the cortex (sensory afference may be blocked at the level of the root to stop pain in an entire limb, e.g. in syndromes associated with chronic pain)
Q:

Describe the internal organization of the grey matter.

A:

Ventral horn: composed of 3 main groups of neurons (medio-lateral gradient)

  1. Medial neurons: innervation of the midline of the body (trunk)
  2. Central neurons:  innervation of the proximal part of the limb, mainly found in the cervical, lumbar and sacral myelomeres (innervate the diaphragm (= muscular structure that serves as a boundary between two cavities, keeping their contents in their anatomical compartments) that controls breathing by expanding the thoracic cavity to allow the lungs to fill up with air, e.g. in ALS degeneration of these motor neurons will lead to death via cardio-respiratory arrest) and the pelvic diaphragm
  3. Lateral neurons: innervation of the distal part of the limb (e.g. fingers), completely missing the thoracic myelomeres = innervation only of axial structures

Distinction between ventrally and dorsally located neurons: ventral = extensor muscles, dorsal = flexor muscles


Dorsal horn: contains a series of structures responsible for receiving sensory information from the periphery via the dorsal root ganglion, which enters the spinal cord from the posterior horn

  1. Substantia gelatinosa: apex of the dorsal horn, layer of grey matter specialized nuclei for receiving sensory information (very small neuros acting as a filter for incoming information in the spinal cord, especially for painful stimuli)
  2. Nucleus proprius of the posterior horn: large group of neurons, more medial, receives sensory information concerning gross touch (fine touch is coded in the brain stem, axons ascend directly without synapsis in spinal cord)
  3. Nucleus dorsalis (or Clarke's column): receives proprioceptive information (=body positions, concentration of muscles), important for maintaining balance and coordinating movements
Q:

Rootlets

A:

Smaller bundle of axons that comes out of the CNS (spinal cord > spinal nerve > 2 distinct rootlets)

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Dorsal root ganglion

A:

Group of neurons whose  somas arelocated outside the main axis of the NS

Q:

Diaphragm

A:

Controls breathing by expanding the thoracic cavity to allow thelungs to fill up with air

-> in ALS, degeneration of these motor neurons will  eventually  lead to  death  via  cardio-respiratory arrest

Q:

Proprioceptive information

A:

Information about body position, contraction of muscles that is important for maintaining balance and coordinating movements

Q:

What are the three levels of functioning of the spinal cord?

A:
  1. Reflex arcs: within one myelomer, sensory info (dorsal root) enters the dorsal horn and is forwarded directly to the motor neurons (ventral horn) -> AP carried to the central motor root =
    activates  the  muscle  through  the  spinal  nerve  =>  immediate  motor  response  to  the  stimulus,
    sensory-motor feedback (sensory input => motor output) = basic principle of the NS.
  2. Simple reflexes: coordination of different myelomeres -> sensory info from one muscle forwarded to the spinal cord, in particular to the same myelomere and close ones => possible motor output at the level
    of  another  muscle 
    -> e.g. burning of a hand causes movement of the whole arm, coordinated at
    different level of the SC to produce a complex  pattern. Unconscious level of functioning, all
    mediated inside the SC.
  3. Cortical  motor  control:  allows the cortex to exert its will on the lower centres (SC) -> typical of
    superior animal species, especially primates. Higher centers can consciously control motor
    functions and suppress reflexes (through interneurons) => voluntary movement. NB! Integration of
    voluntary and involuntary movements -> e.g. walking: voluntary start command but action is kept going indefinitely by the local circuits of the spinal cord (2nd level of functioning), until the upper center decides to stop. This level of functioning implies collaboration between cortex and SC ->
    motor  commands  from  the  cortex  +  continuous  proprioceptive  feedback  from  the  SC to the  brain
    (anatomically  allowed  by  WM  of  the  SC  -> modulation  of  activity  with  efferent  fibers,  feedback
    from afferent fibers).  
Q:

Interpeduncular fossa

A:

groove between the peduncles, where some structures of the diencephalon can be identified

Q:

Describe the ventral motor root of a spinal nerve.

A:
  • derives from axons of the motor neurons found in basal plate
  • those motor neurons grow their axons towards their target structures
Q:

Name and describe three spinal cord pathologies.

A:
  • Friedreich’s ataxia: genetic disorder, accumulation of Fe in mytochondria => selective degeneration of  fiber  systems  in  the  SC  ->  posterior  and  dorsal  part  of  the  lateral  funiculus  =  mainly  sensory
    deficits and ataxia
    (lack of movement coordination due to cerebellar malfunction, here bc of lack of inputs).
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): myelin degeneration in the deep parts of the lateral funiculus
    and anterior part of the anterior funiculus,
    caused by the degeneration of the upper motor neurons
    in  the  cortex  (which  later  spreads  to  inferior  structures).  Initially  only  voluntary  movement  is
    impaired,  then  degeneration  of  the  neurons  for  diaphragm  and  intercostal  muscles  =>  cardio-
    respiratory failure
    .
  • Tabes  Dorsalis:  emerges  when  syphilis  spreads  to  the  CNS  (up  to  15-20  years  after  infection)  ->
    patients  lose  sensibility  of  the  lower  part  of  the  body,  due  to  the  degeneration of the posterior
    funiculus
    (after chronic inflammation of the dorsal roots and ganglia). Usually patients start walking
    in a way that damages the feet but do not perceive pain.
Lecture 4 - Spinal Cord & Brain Stem

Erstelle und finde Lernmaterialien auf StudySmarter.

Greife kostenlos auf tausende geteilte Karteikarten, Zusammenfassungen, Altklausuren und mehr zu.

Jetzt loslegen

Das sind die beliebtesten Lecture 4 - Spinal Cord & Brain Stem Kurse im gesamten StudySmarter Universum

Spinal cord

San Beda College

Zum Kurs
L2 Intro to brain and spinal cord

University College Dublin

Zum Kurs
spinal cord

Universiti Malaya

Zum Kurs
Brain, CNS & Spinal Cord

Birmingham City University

Zum Kurs
Lecture 11: Spinal cord

Mahidol University

Zum Kurs

Die all-in-one Lernapp für Studierende

Greife auf Millionen geteilter Lernmaterialien der StudySmarter Community zu
Kostenlos anmelden Lecture 4 - Spinal Cord & Brain Stem
Erstelle Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen mit den StudySmarter Tools
Kostenlos loslegen Lecture 4 - Spinal Cord & Brain Stem