Microbiology at University Of North Texas Health Science Center | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für microbiology an der University of North Texas Health Science Center

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Prions

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Noncellular infectious proteins. Most of them occurs spontaneously but can also be in inherited form.

Long incubation time 

Characteristics spongiform changes associated with neuronal loss and failure to induce inflammatory response.

Prion proteins modify the folding of normal human cellular proteins.

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Opa proteins

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Virulence factor that promotes adherence and invasion of Neisseria gonorrhoeae into epithelial cells

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Components of Flagella

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Basal Body- spans through the entire cell wall and consists of small central rod inserted into series of rings, it spins around and spins the flagellum.


Hook


Filament- protein filaments that extends like long tails from cell membranes

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Gram positive bacteria

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Capsular material ( except S. Pyogenes Hyaluronic acid capsule)

Flagella

Thick peptidoglycan cross linked by pentaglycine bridges

Peptidoglycan-teichoic acids are the major triggers of inflammation

LTA- hallmark of positive bacteria

Generally more susceptible to lysozyme and beta lactam drugs


4 different amino acids :

L-alanine, L-lysine , D-glutamic acid and D-alanine

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Teichoic Acids

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Unique feature of Gram + bacteria


Function is to help in the attachment to human cells, pili and specific virulence factors. 


Surface antigens has Teichoic acids

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Augmentin 

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Combination of Amoxycillin and Clavulanic acids that binds irreversibly to B-lactamase enzymes.



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History of microbiology 
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Til 17th century - theory of spontaneous generation existed. 
Francesco Reddi proved that maggots did not arise spontaneously
1857-1914 - Golden age of microbiology 
Louis Pasteur and Robert koch established microbiology as a science

 Pasteur -
 proved the germ theory of disease , co- discoverer of rabies vaccine 
fermentation and pasteurization
Metschnikoff’s discovery of phagocytosis 
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Exceptions to Koch’s postulate 
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Some microbes have unique culture requirements , E.g. Treponema pallindum have been cultured on artificial media 

M. leprae , many rickettsial and viral pathogens cannot be cultured in articulate media 

two or more organisms work in synergy to cause a disease

Symptoms and diseases can be caused by any of the several microbes ( nephritis involves several different pathogens )  
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Microaerophiles

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Requires oxygen for growth but concentration of oxygen must be below atmospheric level ( < 21%)


Ex: Campylobacter, Helicobacter

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Obligate aerobes

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Requires oxygen at atm. oxygen level of 21%


No fermentation pathway because that is an anaerobic pathway 

Generally produce superoxide Dismutase

Ex: Pseudomonas , M. tuberculosis, Bacillus

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Gram Negative Bacteria

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Capsular material

Flagella 

Thin peptidoglycan not cross linked


Endotoxins are the major triggers of inflammation


Generally less susceptible to lysozyme and beta lactam drugs.


4 main amino acids :

L-alanine, D-glutamic acid , D-aminopalmatic acid, D- alanine


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Obligate anaerobes

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Organism can only grow in the absence of oxygen, uses fermentative pathways


Ex: ABC, Actinomyces, Bacteriodes, Clostridium

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Q:

Prions

A:

Noncellular infectious proteins. Most of them occurs spontaneously but can also be in inherited form.

Long incubation time 

Characteristics spongiform changes associated with neuronal loss and failure to induce inflammatory response.

Prion proteins modify the folding of normal human cellular proteins.

Q:

Opa proteins

A:

Virulence factor that promotes adherence and invasion of Neisseria gonorrhoeae into epithelial cells

Q:

Components of Flagella

A:

Basal Body- spans through the entire cell wall and consists of small central rod inserted into series of rings, it spins around and spins the flagellum.


Hook


Filament- protein filaments that extends like long tails from cell membranes

Q:

Gram positive bacteria

A:

Capsular material ( except S. Pyogenes Hyaluronic acid capsule)

Flagella

Thick peptidoglycan cross linked by pentaglycine bridges

Peptidoglycan-teichoic acids are the major triggers of inflammation

LTA- hallmark of positive bacteria

Generally more susceptible to lysozyme and beta lactam drugs


4 different amino acids :

L-alanine, L-lysine , D-glutamic acid and D-alanine

Q:

Teichoic Acids

A:

Unique feature of Gram + bacteria


Function is to help in the attachment to human cells, pili and specific virulence factors. 


Surface antigens has Teichoic acids

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Q:

Augmentin 

A:

Combination of Amoxycillin and Clavulanic acids that binds irreversibly to B-lactamase enzymes.



Q:
History of microbiology 
A:
Til 17th century - theory of spontaneous generation existed. 
Francesco Reddi proved that maggots did not arise spontaneously
1857-1914 - Golden age of microbiology 
Louis Pasteur and Robert koch established microbiology as a science

 Pasteur -
 proved the germ theory of disease , co- discoverer of rabies vaccine 
fermentation and pasteurization
Metschnikoff’s discovery of phagocytosis 
Q:
Exceptions to Koch’s postulate 
A:
Some microbes have unique culture requirements , E.g. Treponema pallindum have been cultured on artificial media 

M. leprae , many rickettsial and viral pathogens cannot be cultured in articulate media 

two or more organisms work in synergy to cause a disease

Symptoms and diseases can be caused by any of the several microbes ( nephritis involves several different pathogens )  
Q:

Microaerophiles

A:

Requires oxygen for growth but concentration of oxygen must be below atmospheric level ( < 21%)


Ex: Campylobacter, Helicobacter

Q:

Obligate aerobes

A:

Requires oxygen at atm. oxygen level of 21%


No fermentation pathway because that is an anaerobic pathway 

Generally produce superoxide Dismutase

Ex: Pseudomonas , M. tuberculosis, Bacillus

Q:

Gram Negative Bacteria

A:

Capsular material

Flagella 

Thin peptidoglycan not cross linked


Endotoxins are the major triggers of inflammation


Generally less susceptible to lysozyme and beta lactam drugs.


4 main amino acids :

L-alanine, D-glutamic acid , D-aminopalmatic acid, D- alanine


Q:

Obligate anaerobes

A:

Organism can only grow in the absence of oxygen, uses fermentative pathways


Ex: ABC, Actinomyces, Bacteriodes, Clostridium

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