2 Bacterial Genetics at University Of Medicine And Pharmacy Of Iasi | Flashcards & Summaries

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conjugative plasmid example for antibiotic resistance

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plasmid R

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Genetic engineering

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Principle: bacterial, viral or even eukaryotic genes are cloned in vectors (plasmids, gamma phages), using some restriction endonucleases, thus transforming receptor bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli K12). 

Receptor bacteria express phenotypically, with great efficiency, the cloned information (e.g., production of insulin, antigen for vaccine, etc.).

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Which F factor was most studied?

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fertility factor of E. coli is most studied

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VARIABILITY IN BACTERIA

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1. phenotypic variations:

induction + repression

2. genotypic variations: 

mutation + genetic transfer

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Transformation

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1. natural - Streptococcus pneumoniae expresses DNA-binding proteins on the cell surface when in stationary phase growth conditions. This natural competent state allows uptake of "naked DNA"
2. in vitro (Ca 2+, heat shock, etc); artificially induced competence due to increased membrane permeability

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Stages of temperate phages:

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• infective phage (mature), 

• prophage (that replicates together with the host bacterium genome) 

• replicative phage (by induction).

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selectable marker

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  • The antibiotic resistance gene allows for selection in bacteria. 
  • However, many plasmids also have selectable markers for use in other cell types.
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Episome - function

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  1. episomes are called sex factors
  2. determine if chromosome material will be transferred from one bacterium to another
  3. other episomes carry genes that make bacteria resistant to the inhibitory action of antibiotics
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primer binding site

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  • A short single-stranded DNA sequence 
  • used as an initiation point for PCR amplification or sequencing
  • Primers can be exploited for sequence verification of plasmids.
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causes of MUTATION

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1. spontaneous

  1. point (error)
  2. deletion
  3. insertional sequence element (IS)

2. induced (mutagen)

  1. indirect - requires DNA replication
  2. direct - affects transcription/translation
  3. repair-induced (error prone)
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non-conjugative plasmid: example + what bacteria

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plasmid encoding ß-lactamase secretion in S. aureus

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Plasmid

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an extrachromosomal ring of DNA (especially of bacteria) that replicates autonomously

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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen 2 bacterial genetics Kurs an der University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Iasi - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

conjugative plasmid example for antibiotic resistance

A:

plasmid R

Q:

Genetic engineering

A:

Principle: bacterial, viral or even eukaryotic genes are cloned in vectors (plasmids, gamma phages), using some restriction endonucleases, thus transforming receptor bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli K12). 

Receptor bacteria express phenotypically, with great efficiency, the cloned information (e.g., production of insulin, antigen for vaccine, etc.).

Q:

Which F factor was most studied?

A:

fertility factor of E. coli is most studied

Q:

VARIABILITY IN BACTERIA

A:

1. phenotypic variations:

induction + repression

2. genotypic variations: 

mutation + genetic transfer

Q:

Transformation

A:

1. natural - Streptococcus pneumoniae expresses DNA-binding proteins on the cell surface when in stationary phase growth conditions. This natural competent state allows uptake of "naked DNA"
2. in vitro (Ca 2+, heat shock, etc); artificially induced competence due to increased membrane permeability

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Stages of temperate phages:

A:

• infective phage (mature), 

• prophage (that replicates together with the host bacterium genome) 

• replicative phage (by induction).

Q:

selectable marker

A:
  • The antibiotic resistance gene allows for selection in bacteria. 
  • However, many plasmids also have selectable markers for use in other cell types.
Q:

Episome - function

A:
  1. episomes are called sex factors
  2. determine if chromosome material will be transferred from one bacterium to another
  3. other episomes carry genes that make bacteria resistant to the inhibitory action of antibiotics
Q:

primer binding site

A:
  • A short single-stranded DNA sequence 
  • used as an initiation point for PCR amplification or sequencing
  • Primers can be exploited for sequence verification of plasmids.
Q:

causes of MUTATION

A:

1. spontaneous

  1. point (error)
  2. deletion
  3. insertional sequence element (IS)

2. induced (mutagen)

  1. indirect - requires DNA replication
  2. direct - affects transcription/translation
  3. repair-induced (error prone)
Q:

non-conjugative plasmid: example + what bacteria

A:

plasmid encoding ß-lactamase secretion in S. aureus

Q:

Plasmid

A:

an extrachromosomal ring of DNA (especially of bacteria) that replicates autonomously

2 bacterial genetics

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