BIOCHIMIE LP at University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Bucharest

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Solutiile

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Componentele unei solutii

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Solvatare (Dizolvare)
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Concentrația 

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Concentrația procentuală masică

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Concentratia procentuală volumică

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Concentraţia molară (CM) sau molaritatea (M)
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Concentraţia masa/ volum

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Coeficient de solubilitate

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 - Solubilitatea substanţelor depinde de:

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• În general, ce să întâmplă cu solubilitatea la creşterea temperaturii:
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Clasificarea substanţelor după solubilitatea lor în 100 g, apă la t = 20oC:

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Exemplary flashcards for BIOCHIMIE LP at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Bucharest on StudySmarter:

BIOCHIMIE LP

Solutiile
Amestecuri omogene de două sau mai multe substanțe/ componente, ale căror particule nu se pot separa prin filtrare sau centrifugare.

BIOCHIMIE LP

Componentele unei solutii
1. Mediul de dispersie (substanța dizolvantă, solvent) = componenta în care se dispersează particulele celorlalte componente. Este în exces faţă de celelalte.

• Apa se consideră solvent, indiferent de proporţia ei într-un amestec.

2. Solvatul (solut sau substanţă dizolvată) = componenta ale cărei particule se dispersează / se dizolvă în solvent.

BIOCHIMIE LP

Solvatare (Dizolvare)
= procesul prin care substanţele solubile trec în soluţii.


BIOCHIMIE LP

Concentrația 
= mărimea fizică prin care se exprimă cantitativ compoziţia unei soluţii.

BIOCHIMIE LP

Concentrația procentuală masică
= numărul de grame de corp solubil la 100 g soluţie

C (p) = m (solut)/ m (solut) + m (solvent) x 100 = m (solut)/ m x 100 ; (C(p))=%

BIOCHIMIE LP

Concentratia procentuală volumică
= numărul de ml de solut la 100 ml soluţie.

C(p) = V (solut)/ V (solut) + V (solvent) x 100 = V (solut)/ V x 100 ; (C(p)) = %

BIOCHIMIE LP

Concentraţia molară (CM) sau molaritatea (M)
•numărul de moli de solut dizolvat într-un litru de soluţie

•M = ν / V(L)                       v – nr moli
•ν = m solut / μ                 μ - masa molara a solutului

BIOCHIMIE LP

Concentraţia masa/ volum
1. Masa solut (g)/ 100 ml

Masa solut (mg) / 100 ml (dl)

BIOCHIMIE LP

Coeficient de solubilitate
= cantitatea maximă de substanta, exprimată în grame, care se poate dizolva la o anumită temperatură în 100 g apă.

BIOCHIMIE LP

 - Solubilitatea substanţelor depinde de:
- natura solutului,
- natura solventului
- temperatură

BIOCHIMIE LP

• În general, ce să întâmplă cu solubilitatea la creşterea temperaturii:
 - solubilitatea substantelor solide creşte
 - solubilitatea gazelor scade.

BIOCHIMIE LP

Clasificarea substanţelor după solubilitatea lor în 100 g, apă la t = 20oC:
- Substanţe uşor solubile – dacă au solubilitatea mai mare de 10 g;
- Substanţe greu solubile – dacă au solubilitatea mai mică de 1 g;
- Substanţe insolubile – dacă au solubilitatea mai mică de 0,01 g.

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