MCBG 4 - Nutrition & Diet at University Of Leicester | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für MCBG 4 - Nutrition & Diet an der University of Leicester

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

List the essential components of the diet.

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  • Carbohydrates - mainly supplies energy
  • Fats - supplies energy and essential fatty acids
  • Proteins - supplies energy and amino acids
  • Vitamins
  • Fibre - for normal GI function
  • Water - maintains hydration
  • Minerals
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Define the components of daily energy expenditure.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Daily energy expenditure is the sum of:

  • Basal metabolic rate (BMR) - e.g. maintainenance of cells/temperature/organ function
  • Diet-Induced Thermogenesis (DIT)- energy required to process food)
  • Physical activity level (PAL) - intensity and duration of activity
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

List the 9 essential amino acids.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • If - Isoleucine
  • Learned, - Leucine
  • This - Threonine
  • Huge - Histidine
  • List - Lysine
  • May - Methionine
  • Prove - Phenylalanine
  • Truly - Tryptophan
  • Valuable - Valine
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is 1kcal equal to?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

4.2kJ

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Why are fats important in the diet?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Lipids in triacylglycerol form release much more energy when oxidised compared to proteins and carbohydrates
  • Required for absorption of fat soluble vitamins (K,A,D,E)
  • Provide essential fatty acids e.g. linoleic and linolenic acids which cannot be synthesised by body
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Why are minerals important for diet?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Electrolytes maintain ionic gradients
  • Ca and P essential for structure (bones and teeth)
  • Ca signalling molecule e.g. muscle contraction
  • Fe important for Hb
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

List the illnesses caused by fat soluble vitamin deficiencies?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Vitamin A

  • Xerophthalmia - dryness of the eye

Vitamin D

  • Rickets - weak/soft bones in children

Vitamin E 

  • Neurologic abnormalities

Vitamin K 

  • Defective blood clotting
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain how differences in fat distribution can affect health.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Increased fat in upper body relative to hips can increase risk of:

  • Insulin resistance - Type 2 diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Hyperlipidaemia - high [plasma lipid] e.g. cholesterol
  • Stroke
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Premature death
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Which proteins are conditionally essential?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

In children and pregnant women there is a lot of rapid growth occurring which means high rate of protein synthesis.

May require extra cysteine, arginine and tyrosine (CAT).

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the different dietary reference values?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

RNI - Reference Nutrient Intake

  • Used for protein, vitamins and minerals

EAR - Estimated average requirement

LRNI - Lower Reference Nutrient Intake

  • Intakes below LRNI are insufficient for most people
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How is marasmus caused?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Occurs due to insufficient energy intake
  • Deficiencies in proteins, vitamins, minerals etc.
  • Fat stores depleted - loss of body fat
  • Converted to ketone bodies as source of energy for CNS (CNS and RBC's require glucose as energy source)
  • Glucose released from glycogen stores in liver
  • Lastly, muscle protein broken down for gluconeogenesis - loss of muscle protein
  • Severe body fat and muscle mass loss
  • Muscle loss in heart - bradycardia / hypotension
  • Muscle loss in GI tract 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How is kwashiorkor developed?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Calorie intake normal but protein deficiencies
  • Essential amino acids are not supplied
  • Liver is unable to synthesise lipoproteins (lipoproteins formed to allow transport of lipids around the body)
  • This causes accumulation of fat in liver - fatty liver
  • This causes hepatic dysfunction
  • Liver also unable to synthesise certain amino acids e.g. albumin
  • Less aa in plasma - reduces osmotic pressure causing fluid shift which develops into oedema
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Q:

List the essential components of the diet.

A:
  • Carbohydrates - mainly supplies energy
  • Fats - supplies energy and essential fatty acids
  • Proteins - supplies energy and amino acids
  • Vitamins
  • Fibre - for normal GI function
  • Water - maintains hydration
  • Minerals
Q:

Define the components of daily energy expenditure.

A:

Daily energy expenditure is the sum of:

  • Basal metabolic rate (BMR) - e.g. maintainenance of cells/temperature/organ function
  • Diet-Induced Thermogenesis (DIT)- energy required to process food)
  • Physical activity level (PAL) - intensity and duration of activity
Q:

List the 9 essential amino acids.

A:
  • If - Isoleucine
  • Learned, - Leucine
  • This - Threonine
  • Huge - Histidine
  • List - Lysine
  • May - Methionine
  • Prove - Phenylalanine
  • Truly - Tryptophan
  • Valuable - Valine
Q:

What is 1kcal equal to?

A:

4.2kJ

Q:

Why are fats important in the diet?

A:
  • Lipids in triacylglycerol form release much more energy when oxidised compared to proteins and carbohydrates
  • Required for absorption of fat soluble vitamins (K,A,D,E)
  • Provide essential fatty acids e.g. linoleic and linolenic acids which cannot be synthesised by body
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Why are minerals important for diet?

A:
  • Electrolytes maintain ionic gradients
  • Ca and P essential for structure (bones and teeth)
  • Ca signalling molecule e.g. muscle contraction
  • Fe important for Hb
Q:

List the illnesses caused by fat soluble vitamin deficiencies?

A:

Vitamin A

  • Xerophthalmia - dryness of the eye

Vitamin D

  • Rickets - weak/soft bones in children

Vitamin E 

  • Neurologic abnormalities

Vitamin K 

  • Defective blood clotting
Q:

Explain how differences in fat distribution can affect health.

A:

Increased fat in upper body relative to hips can increase risk of:

  • Insulin resistance - Type 2 diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Hyperlipidaemia - high [plasma lipid] e.g. cholesterol
  • Stroke
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Premature death
Q:

Which proteins are conditionally essential?

A:

In children and pregnant women there is a lot of rapid growth occurring which means high rate of protein synthesis.

May require extra cysteine, arginine and tyrosine (CAT).

Q:

What are the different dietary reference values?

A:

RNI - Reference Nutrient Intake

  • Used for protein, vitamins and minerals

EAR - Estimated average requirement

LRNI - Lower Reference Nutrient Intake

  • Intakes below LRNI are insufficient for most people
Q:

How is marasmus caused?

A:
  • Occurs due to insufficient energy intake
  • Deficiencies in proteins, vitamins, minerals etc.
  • Fat stores depleted - loss of body fat
  • Converted to ketone bodies as source of energy for CNS (CNS and RBC's require glucose as energy source)
  • Glucose released from glycogen stores in liver
  • Lastly, muscle protein broken down for gluconeogenesis - loss of muscle protein
  • Severe body fat and muscle mass loss
  • Muscle loss in heart - bradycardia / hypotension
  • Muscle loss in GI tract 
Q:

How is kwashiorkor developed?

A:
  • Calorie intake normal but protein deficiencies
  • Essential amino acids are not supplied
  • Liver is unable to synthesise lipoproteins (lipoproteins formed to allow transport of lipids around the body)
  • This causes accumulation of fat in liver - fatty liver
  • This causes hepatic dysfunction
  • Liver also unable to synthesise certain amino acids e.g. albumin
  • Less aa in plasma - reduces osmotic pressure causing fluid shift which develops into oedema
MCBG 4 - Nutrition & Diet

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