BL 7 - Tissue Organisation at University Of Leicester | Flashcards & Summaries

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe the structure of the large intestine.

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  • Mucosa - simple columnar epithelium to form crypts
    • produces mucus
    • supplies cells to the surface
    • allow absorption of water and electrolytes
  • Submucosa - lymphoid tissue aggregations
    • protect against pathogens
  • Muscularis mucosae
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe how tight junctions aid with cell adherence?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Positioned at the very top at the lateral border
  • Their role is to prevent movement of larger molecules into the deeper tissues of the organ
  • Sometimes can open in the gut lining to allow glucose/amino acids through - paracellular transport
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is the role of integrins?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Hold tissues together
  • Work in pairs of alpha-beta dimers
  • Weak binders
  • Work better when 2 dimers come together to bind to actin cytoskeleton e.g. in focal adhesions
    • tetramer formed by focal adhesion kinase
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe the structure of a desmosome.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Strongest cell adhesion structures
  • In tissues with mechanical stress
    • e.g. cardiac muscle, epithelia, pregnant uterus
  • Cytokeratin fibres - intracellular
  • E-cadherin proteins - intercellular (spring like)
  • Prevent tissue destruction by providing strength
  • Only adhesion in skin/epidermis
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is the difference in desmosomes and hemi-desmosomes?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Differences

  • HDs on basal surface
  • HDs held to basal lamina via integrins
    • (basal lamina attached to connective tissue via intracellular matrix e.g. collagen/elastin fibres)
  • HD's role to anchor  and prevent loss of cells

Similarities

  • Both attached to intercellular cytokeratin filaments
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe the structure of focal adhesions.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Uses intercellular actin filaments (adhesion junctions)
  • On basal surface
  • Uses integrins like hemidesmosomes
  • Bound to fibronectin instead of laminin like HD
    • fibronectin then binds to collagen fibres adding more stability


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe the role of adhesion junctions?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • In pairs on lateral border of epithelial/endothelial cells
  • Linked to actin filaments in intracellular space
  • These proteins are linked to intercellular E-cadherins (as an achor)
  • Stabilising factor and additional barrier for intracellular transport


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is common about all adhesion structures?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • They all require presence of calcium ions.

  • They all hold the tissue together
    •  maintain structure/stability

  • Prevent pathogens of invading internal environment
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe the role and structure of the mucosal membrane.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Lines all moist/hollow regions of internal organs
  • They secrete mucus - thick protective fluid
    • Contains mucins, lysosymes, antibodies
  • Function:
    • Prevent pathogens entering
    • Prevent dehydration of tissues
    • Lubrication
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What layers is the GI-tract made up of?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Lumen

  • Mucosa lining the lumen - epithelial cells
  • Muscularis mucosae - thin layer of smooth muscle
  • Submucosa - a vascular/lymphatic connective tissue layer
  • Muscularis externa - smooth muscle in 2 directions
    • Inner - circular muscle fibres  (around)
    • Outer - longitudinal (up and down)
  • Serosa - vascular/fibrous/nervous connective tissue 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe the structure of the oesophagus.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Stratified, squamous, non keratinised epithelium
  • Submucosa - connective tissue containing mucus glands
  • Muscularis externa - allows bolus of food to travel down via peristalsis
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What holds cells together?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Cell adhesion molecules
  • Extra-cellular proteins
    • e.g. collagen fibres
  • Internal/External scaffolding
    • cytoskeletal proteins e.g. cytokeratin
  • Close proximity 
    • pressure pushes cells together 
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Q:

Describe the structure of the large intestine.

A:
  • Mucosa - simple columnar epithelium to form crypts
    • produces mucus
    • supplies cells to the surface
    • allow absorption of water and electrolytes
  • Submucosa - lymphoid tissue aggregations
    • protect against pathogens
  • Muscularis mucosae
Q:

Describe how tight junctions aid with cell adherence?

A:
  • Positioned at the very top at the lateral border
  • Their role is to prevent movement of larger molecules into the deeper tissues of the organ
  • Sometimes can open in the gut lining to allow glucose/amino acids through - paracellular transport
Q:

What is the role of integrins?

A:
  • Hold tissues together
  • Work in pairs of alpha-beta dimers
  • Weak binders
  • Work better when 2 dimers come together to bind to actin cytoskeleton e.g. in focal adhesions
    • tetramer formed by focal adhesion kinase
Q:

Describe the structure of a desmosome.

A:
  • Strongest cell adhesion structures
  • In tissues with mechanical stress
    • e.g. cardiac muscle, epithelia, pregnant uterus
  • Cytokeratin fibres - intracellular
  • E-cadherin proteins - intercellular (spring like)
  • Prevent tissue destruction by providing strength
  • Only adhesion in skin/epidermis
Q:

What is the difference in desmosomes and hemi-desmosomes?

A:

Differences

  • HDs on basal surface
  • HDs held to basal lamina via integrins
    • (basal lamina attached to connective tissue via intracellular matrix e.g. collagen/elastin fibres)
  • HD's role to anchor  and prevent loss of cells

Similarities

  • Both attached to intercellular cytokeratin filaments
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Describe the structure of focal adhesions.

A:
  • Uses intercellular actin filaments (adhesion junctions)
  • On basal surface
  • Uses integrins like hemidesmosomes
  • Bound to fibronectin instead of laminin like HD
    • fibronectin then binds to collagen fibres adding more stability


Q:

Describe the role of adhesion junctions?

A:
  • In pairs on lateral border of epithelial/endothelial cells
  • Linked to actin filaments in intracellular space
  • These proteins are linked to intercellular E-cadherins (as an achor)
  • Stabilising factor and additional barrier for intracellular transport


Q:

What is common about all adhesion structures?

A:
  • They all require presence of calcium ions.

  • They all hold the tissue together
    •  maintain structure/stability

  • Prevent pathogens of invading internal environment
Q:

Describe the role and structure of the mucosal membrane.

A:
  • Lines all moist/hollow regions of internal organs
  • They secrete mucus - thick protective fluid
    • Contains mucins, lysosymes, antibodies
  • Function:
    • Prevent pathogens entering
    • Prevent dehydration of tissues
    • Lubrication
Q:

What layers is the GI-tract made up of?

A:

Lumen

  • Mucosa lining the lumen - epithelial cells
  • Muscularis mucosae - thin layer of smooth muscle
  • Submucosa - a vascular/lymphatic connective tissue layer
  • Muscularis externa - smooth muscle in 2 directions
    • Inner - circular muscle fibres  (around)
    • Outer - longitudinal (up and down)
  • Serosa - vascular/fibrous/nervous connective tissue 
Q:

Describe the structure of the oesophagus.

A:
  • Stratified, squamous, non keratinised epithelium
  • Submucosa - connective tissue containing mucus glands
  • Muscularis externa - allows bolus of food to travel down via peristalsis
Q:

What holds cells together?

A:
  • Cell adhesion molecules
  • Extra-cellular proteins
    • e.g. collagen fibres
  • Internal/External scaffolding
    • cytoskeletal proteins e.g. cytokeratin
  • Close proximity 
    • pressure pushes cells together 
BL 7 - Tissue Organisation

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