Nature Vs Nurture: Origins Of Offending Behaviour at University Of Kent At Canterbury | Flashcards & Summaries

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Give 2 issues with studying crime.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. All crimes aren’t homogeneous (the same).
2. The people that commit crime aren’t homogeneous.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe the SLT’s explanation of criminality.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. The consequences of actions whether good or bad influence future behaviour through operant conditioning.
2. If action is rewarded, behaviour will reoccur.
3. If action is punished, behaviour will not reoccur. 
4. If a person imitates the actions/behaviour of someone else, they have modelled their behaviour.
5. When the person models someone else’s behaviour, they observe whether there are consequences. This affects whether they imitate or not.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Give 3 limitations of physiognomy.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Biased against poor that are not similar to researcher.
2. People with ‘criminal features’ may have them because of malnutrition, poor healthcare and hygiene issues.
3. Encourages elitism, and class hierarchies. People of lower classes deemed criminal.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe Sheldon (1949)’s theory on body types.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Body types person has determines type of behaviour they’ll engage in (somatotype).
3. Three body types: endomorph, ectomorph and mesomorph.
3. Mesomorphs more energetic and adventurous,  more likely to engage in criminal behaviour.
4. Somototype related to temperament, temperament linked to criminality.
5. The more fit a person is, the more likely they are to be a criminal.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the implications of the findings of the genetic influences on crime?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. People with lower intelligence have a higher chance of criminality, and have poorer learning skills which can affect their ability to find employment.
2. Also have a poor ability in avoiding risks, making them likely to be caught if committing a crime.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
List adverse childhood experiences.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Physical abuse 
2. Emotional abuse
3. Sexual abuse 
4. Family substance abuse 
5. Family members in prison 
6. Family mental illness 
7. Family violence 
8. Parental separation/divorce 
9. Physical and emotional neglect.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are twin studies?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
They examine whether criminality Co-occurs among twins.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are adoption studies?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
They examine criminality among adopted children with criminal biological parents.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe the method and results of an adoptee study.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Cloninger (1982) used male adoptees, then compared them to other adoptees with no adoptive or biological criminal background.
2. If adoptive parents were criminal, but their biological parents were not criminal, adoptees were twice likely to become criminals themselves.
3. If adoptive parents were not criminal, but biological parents were criminal, the adoptees were 4 times likely to be criminals themselves.
3. If both adoptive and biological parents were criminals, the adoptees were 14 times likely to be criminals themselves.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the 5 types of genes that can have an impact on criminal behaviour?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Dopamine transporter gene.
2. Dopamine receptor gene.
3. Serotonin transporter gene.
4. COMT gene.
5. MAOA gene.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Explain physiognomy.
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. States that criminals have different facial features than non-criminals.
2. Physical features such as receding hairline, large, protruding ears, and high cheek bones meant that someone was more likely to be a criminal.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is a criticism of SLT’s explanation for criminality?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Very difficult to predict the learning of criminal behaviour, every observer does not eventually go on to commit crimes.
Lösung ausblenden
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Q:
Give 2 issues with studying crime.
A:
1. All crimes aren’t homogeneous (the same).
2. The people that commit crime aren’t homogeneous.

Q:
Describe the SLT’s explanation of criminality.
A:
1. The consequences of actions whether good or bad influence future behaviour through operant conditioning.
2. If action is rewarded, behaviour will reoccur.
3. If action is punished, behaviour will not reoccur. 
4. If a person imitates the actions/behaviour of someone else, they have modelled their behaviour.
5. When the person models someone else’s behaviour, they observe whether there are consequences. This affects whether they imitate or not.

Q:
Give 3 limitations of physiognomy.
A:
1. Biased against poor that are not similar to researcher.
2. People with ‘criminal features’ may have them because of malnutrition, poor healthcare and hygiene issues.
3. Encourages elitism, and class hierarchies. People of lower classes deemed criminal.
Q:
Describe Sheldon (1949)’s theory on body types.
A:
1. Body types person has determines type of behaviour they’ll engage in (somatotype).
3. Three body types: endomorph, ectomorph and mesomorph.
3. Mesomorphs more energetic and adventurous,  more likely to engage in criminal behaviour.
4. Somototype related to temperament, temperament linked to criminality.
5. The more fit a person is, the more likely they are to be a criminal.
Q:
What are the implications of the findings of the genetic influences on crime?
A:
1. People with lower intelligence have a higher chance of criminality, and have poorer learning skills which can affect their ability to find employment.
2. Also have a poor ability in avoiding risks, making them likely to be caught if committing a crime.

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
List adverse childhood experiences.
A:
1. Physical abuse 
2. Emotional abuse
3. Sexual abuse 
4. Family substance abuse 
5. Family members in prison 
6. Family mental illness 
7. Family violence 
8. Parental separation/divorce 
9. Physical and emotional neglect.
Q:
What are twin studies?
A:
They examine whether criminality Co-occurs among twins.
Q:
What are adoption studies?
A:
They examine criminality among adopted children with criminal biological parents.
Q:
Describe the method and results of an adoptee study.
A:
1. Cloninger (1982) used male adoptees, then compared them to other adoptees with no adoptive or biological criminal background.
2. If adoptive parents were criminal, but their biological parents were not criminal, adoptees were twice likely to become criminals themselves.
3. If adoptive parents were not criminal, but biological parents were criminal, the adoptees were 4 times likely to be criminals themselves.
3. If both adoptive and biological parents were criminals, the adoptees were 14 times likely to be criminals themselves.
Q:
What are the 5 types of genes that can have an impact on criminal behaviour?
A:
1. Dopamine transporter gene.
2. Dopamine receptor gene.
3. Serotonin transporter gene.
4. COMT gene.
5. MAOA gene.
Q:
Explain physiognomy.
A:
1. States that criminals have different facial features than non-criminals.
2. Physical features such as receding hairline, large, protruding ears, and high cheek bones meant that someone was more likely to be a criminal.

Q:
What is a criticism of SLT’s explanation for criminality?
A:
1. Very difficult to predict the learning of criminal behaviour, every observer does not eventually go on to commit crimes.
Nature vs Nurture: Origins of offending behaviour

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