Juvenile Offending, Street Gangs - Forensic Psychology at University Of Kent At Canterbury | Flashcards & Summaries

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
When are gangs problematic?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
If an aspect of criminality is involved.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How does the euro gang network define gangs?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Gang has to have existed for a long time (durability).
2. Gang has to operate away from home (street orientation).
3. Young people are more likely to join, elders are included (youthfulness).
4. Group has to find commonality in participating in illegal activity.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Why is it important to understand gangs?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Gang members more likely to commit drive-bys and homicides, more so than at-risk delinquents (Huff, 1998).
2. Being a member of a gang increases chance of committing crimes, even if person was previously a delinquent (Bendixen, Endresen & Olweus, 2006).
3. Gang violence involves the use of weapons that are very dangerous (Klein, Weerman &Thornberry, 2006).

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe criminological theories of gang involvement.
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Economic instability leads to less institutions that develop less law abiding young adults such as after school clubs.
2. This leads to disruptions among families and and less control over young children.
3. People also get involved in gangs for excitement (Thrasher, 1927).
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe cultural transmission and its link to gang involvement.
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. States that place person grows up in is important. Delinquency and gang violence can be passed down to next generation.
2. If person receives little support, gang will provide this.
3. Gang becomes a greater social institution as a result (Shaw & McKay, 1931).


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe the differential association approach to gang violence (Sutherland, 1937).
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Delinquent behaviour learned from people you associate with.
2. Transmission of pro-crime attitudes occurs, will also learn skills used to conduct criminal behaviours.
3. Person becomes different based on who they associate with.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe strain theory of gang involvement (Merton, 1938).
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Society sets goals for members to achieve, opportunities to reach them are very limited.
2. Everyone doesn’t have same opportunity, leads to conflict with cultural goals.
3. Realises society isn’t as equal as it seems.
4. People join gangs because they experience strain/frustration from being low status.
5. Develops behavioural norms as a way to lash out at society. Gangs allow them to do this.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe differential opportunity for gang involvement (Cloward & Ohlin, 1961).
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Opportunity determines delinquent behaviour. Middle class people unlikely to be offenders, less opportunity to commit crimes, and they don’t need to.
2. People who join gangs blame social system for their situation and inability to succeed.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is evidence for gang involvement theories?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Gangs operate in poor and socially disorganised environments.
2. Most gang members have family members that also engage in criminal activity.
3. If someone likes being friends with delinquents, more likely to get involved in gangs.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What have studies found regarding the social strain and differential theories?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Gangs do provide elicit ways to reach desired goals for poor and uneducated individuals (selling drugs, extortion). (Klemp-North, 2007)
2. Preteen stress can increase the likelihood of gang involvement. (Eitle, 2004).
3. Brain less developed in kids; not able to consider long term consequences of decision.
4. But; gang members are not always from poorer families (Spergels, 1995).
5. People with delinquent peers don’t always become delinquents themselves.
6. Many stressed youth don’t join gangs.
7. Explanations biased; based on the characteristics of troubled areas.
8. Do not fully address why people join gangs, or the psychological processes that lead to others becoming gang members.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe social bond theory.
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Control theory; people offend to gain short term results quickly. 
2. Having social bonds with other people inhibits criminal offending and anti-social behaviours.
3. Internalised social norms can also prevent people from committing a crime. The lack of or disruption of a bond can cause some trouble.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What did Vasquez, et al., (2010) find about gang involvement?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Gang membership and aggression/violence is as a result of normal human psychological processes.
2. For instance, aggression in gangs does not always involve drive-bys. Vasquez, Osman and Wood 2012
3. Includes group based retribution against out group member for attacking in group member.
4. More likely when no form of government is present, if there’s a competition for resources and groups want to be seen as strong. Honour and reputation very important. Daley and Wilson 1988.
5. Gangs work outside of the law and do not obey authority, disputes not resolved lawfully.
6. How motivated are people to retaliate? Role of in group identification.
7. Is there an appropriate target? Perception of out group entitativity.
Lösung ausblenden
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Q:
When are gangs problematic?
A:
If an aspect of criminality is involved.
Q:
How does the euro gang network define gangs?
A:
1. Gang has to have existed for a long time (durability).
2. Gang has to operate away from home (street orientation).
3. Young people are more likely to join, elders are included (youthfulness).
4. Group has to find commonality in participating in illegal activity.
Q:
Why is it important to understand gangs?
A:
1. Gang members more likely to commit drive-bys and homicides, more so than at-risk delinquents (Huff, 1998).
2. Being a member of a gang increases chance of committing crimes, even if person was previously a delinquent (Bendixen, Endresen & Olweus, 2006).
3. Gang violence involves the use of weapons that are very dangerous (Klein, Weerman &Thornberry, 2006).

Q:
Describe criminological theories of gang involvement.
A:
1. Economic instability leads to less institutions that develop less law abiding young adults such as after school clubs.
2. This leads to disruptions among families and and less control over young children.
3. People also get involved in gangs for excitement (Thrasher, 1927).
Q:
Describe cultural transmission and its link to gang involvement.
A:
1. States that place person grows up in is important. Delinquency and gang violence can be passed down to next generation.
2. If person receives little support, gang will provide this.
3. Gang becomes a greater social institution as a result (Shaw & McKay, 1931).


Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Describe the differential association approach to gang violence (Sutherland, 1937).
A:
1. Delinquent behaviour learned from people you associate with.
2. Transmission of pro-crime attitudes occurs, will also learn skills used to conduct criminal behaviours.
3. Person becomes different based on who they associate with.
Q:
Describe strain theory of gang involvement (Merton, 1938).
A:
1. Society sets goals for members to achieve, opportunities to reach them are very limited.
2. Everyone doesn’t have same opportunity, leads to conflict with cultural goals.
3. Realises society isn’t as equal as it seems.
4. People join gangs because they experience strain/frustration from being low status.
5. Develops behavioural norms as a way to lash out at society. Gangs allow them to do this.
Q:
Describe differential opportunity for gang involvement (Cloward & Ohlin, 1961).
A:
1. Opportunity determines delinquent behaviour. Middle class people unlikely to be offenders, less opportunity to commit crimes, and they don’t need to.
2. People who join gangs blame social system for their situation and inability to succeed.
Q:
What is evidence for gang involvement theories?
A:
1. Gangs operate in poor and socially disorganised environments.
2. Most gang members have family members that also engage in criminal activity.
3. If someone likes being friends with delinquents, more likely to get involved in gangs.
Q:
What have studies found regarding the social strain and differential theories?
A:
1. Gangs do provide elicit ways to reach desired goals for poor and uneducated individuals (selling drugs, extortion). (Klemp-North, 2007)
2. Preteen stress can increase the likelihood of gang involvement. (Eitle, 2004).
3. Brain less developed in kids; not able to consider long term consequences of decision.
4. But; gang members are not always from poorer families (Spergels, 1995).
5. People with delinquent peers don’t always become delinquents themselves.
6. Many stressed youth don’t join gangs.
7. Explanations biased; based on the characteristics of troubled areas.
8. Do not fully address why people join gangs, or the psychological processes that lead to others becoming gang members.
Q:
Describe social bond theory.
A:
1. Control theory; people offend to gain short term results quickly. 
2. Having social bonds with other people inhibits criminal offending and anti-social behaviours.
3. Internalised social norms can also prevent people from committing a crime. The lack of or disruption of a bond can cause some trouble.
Q:
What did Vasquez, et al., (2010) find about gang involvement?

A:
1. Gang membership and aggression/violence is as a result of normal human psychological processes.
2. For instance, aggression in gangs does not always involve drive-bys. Vasquez, Osman and Wood 2012
3. Includes group based retribution against out group member for attacking in group member.
4. More likely when no form of government is present, if there’s a competition for resources and groups want to be seen as strong. Honour and reputation very important. Daley and Wilson 1988.
5. Gangs work outside of the law and do not obey authority, disputes not resolved lawfully.
6. How motivated are people to retaliate? Role of in group identification.
7. Is there an appropriate target? Perception of out group entitativity.
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