Animal Cruelty - Forensic Psychology at University Of Kent At Canterbury | Flashcards & Summaries

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How common is animal cruelty?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
According to RSPCA, 140,000 complaints were investigated. But this has lead to only 1800 convictions.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
In a pre-modern society, how was animal cruelty viewed?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Animals were seen as possessions. 
2. If laws were broken, they were only applied to the poor, but not to members of ruling class.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe the change in how animals are viewed in modern society.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Animals are now seen as sentient beings.
2. There is now some between those who view animals as possessions (possession-oriented thinking), and those with morally-oriented legal thinking.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe 2 ways that animals were viewed at the end of the 18th century.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Some people recognised that animals feel pain, this means that they are entitled to legal and moral rights.
2. Others believed that animals are our property, however, this doesn’t give us the right to harm them.


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe the 8 ways that animal laws changed during the 18th century and beyond.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. The Martin’s Act established in 1822, prevents the ill-treatment of cattle (horses and other animals). Those in violation of this, received a monetary fine.
2. Society for prevention of cruelty to animals (SPCA) established in 1824. Used to enforce animal cruelty legislation.
3. Pease’s Act, established in 1835, is an amendment of Martin’s Act. Used to prevent torture, and gives more protection for bulls, dogs calves and lambs. Those in violation, can be imprisoned or fined. There was some opposition to this, as many people invested money in animal fighting.
4. The RSPCA was offered a patronage, which legitimised their movement.
5. In 1849, the prevention of cruelty to animals act was established. This act did not need to establish whether defendant acted in cruelty, liability was also extended beyond the defendant. This made it illegal for people to participate in the e-commerce of animals.
6. In 1876, it now became an offence to conduct experiments on animals that caused pain. Except in situations if experiments saved lives, alleviate suffering or advanced physiological knowledge.
7. In 1900, protection was granted wild animals in captivity.
8. The animal welfare act was established in 2006, offenders could be fined up to £20,000, imprisoned for six months, and would also pay any costs incurred by the prosecution. Including the cost of caring for, and treating the animal that was harmed.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
List 7 factors that make individuals likely to abuse animals.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Gender.
2. Age.
3. If they’ve witnessed violence and animal cruelty.
4. Family and parenting experiences.
5. Displacement of aggression.
6. Cognitive Errors.
7. Empathy and emotion regulation.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe 7 factors that make individuals likely to abuse animals.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Gender, males more likely regardless of age group.
2. Age, more likely to abuse animals during late adolescence and early adulthood.
3. Young people that witness violence between family members, or witness animals being harmed, are 3 times more likely to later be cruel to animals than peers who did not witness violence (Baldry, 2005). 
4. Family and parenting experiences, the likelihood of engaging in animal cruelty increases if person abuse during their childhood.
5. When children with someone who abuses them, they are likely to displace their aggression from humans to animals instead.
6. Cognitive errors such as aggressive cues and exposure to violence leads to hostile attribution bias. This leads to the creation of moral disengagement strategies, person believes animal will hurt their friends, so they will hurt animal before they can do so. This bias also leads to them viewing animals as aggressive for no reason.
7. Psychopaths struggle with empathy and emotion regulation. This causes them to be less empathetic towards animals, which makes them more likely to hurt them. Not being able to regulate emotions, can make people more impulsive. Will use animal as outlet when overly emotional.
8. However, very good emotional regulators can also abuse animals. They are able to plan how they will abuse animal, and won’t let their emotions affect this. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe the classification scheme of animal cruelty motivations (Kellert & Felthous).
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Developed 9 animal cruelty motivations from interviewing people that abuse animals.
People abused animals to:
1. Control the animal (abuse used as discipline).
2. Retaliate against animal.
3. Satisfy prejudice against breed or species (hatred of cats).
4. Express aggression through animal (dog fighting).
5. Enhance their own aggressiveness (using animal as target practice).
6. Shock people for amusement.
7. Retaliate against another person (hurt animal to upset owner).
8. Displace aggression from person to animal.
9. Act out non-specific sadism.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe the displaced aggression theory.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. People hurt animals and people to express anger and to exert control that is removed from the original source (parent who abused them, can’t take anger on them, so do it to something weaker).

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe the Sadistic Theory.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. People hurt animals because it gives them pleasure, and they also enjoy the reactions of others.
2. They will only do this to animals they feel superior to, and if they can successfully gain power over them.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe SLT’s explanations of animal cruelty.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. People socialised to expect and seek approval from those they love (Dollard & Millard, 1950).
2. If this expectation isn’t met, they become frustrated and angry. 
3. They will then transfer these feelings to things deemed weaker than them (animals), as they cannot retaliate (Wright & Hensley, 2003).
4. Engaging in animal abuse can also be caused by being exposed to that behaviour as a child.


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is animal cruelty?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
This is socially unacceptable behaviour that intentionally causes unnecessary pain, suffering or distress to an animal, and can lead to their death (Ascione & Lockwood, 1998).
Lösung ausblenden
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Q:
How common is animal cruelty?
A:
According to RSPCA, 140,000 complaints were investigated. But this has lead to only 1800 convictions.
Q:
In a pre-modern society, how was animal cruelty viewed?
A:
1. Animals were seen as possessions. 
2. If laws were broken, they were only applied to the poor, but not to members of ruling class.
Q:
Describe the change in how animals are viewed in modern society.
A:
1. Animals are now seen as sentient beings.
2. There is now some between those who view animals as possessions (possession-oriented thinking), and those with morally-oriented legal thinking.
Q:
Describe 2 ways that animals were viewed at the end of the 18th century.
A:
1. Some people recognised that animals feel pain, this means that they are entitled to legal and moral rights.
2. Others believed that animals are our property, however, this doesn’t give us the right to harm them.


Q:
Describe the 8 ways that animal laws changed during the 18th century and beyond.
A:
1. The Martin’s Act established in 1822, prevents the ill-treatment of cattle (horses and other animals). Those in violation of this, received a monetary fine.
2. Society for prevention of cruelty to animals (SPCA) established in 1824. Used to enforce animal cruelty legislation.
3. Pease’s Act, established in 1835, is an amendment of Martin’s Act. Used to prevent torture, and gives more protection for bulls, dogs calves and lambs. Those in violation, can be imprisoned or fined. There was some opposition to this, as many people invested money in animal fighting.
4. The RSPCA was offered a patronage, which legitimised their movement.
5. In 1849, the prevention of cruelty to animals act was established. This act did not need to establish whether defendant acted in cruelty, liability was also extended beyond the defendant. This made it illegal for people to participate in the e-commerce of animals.
6. In 1876, it now became an offence to conduct experiments on animals that caused pain. Except in situations if experiments saved lives, alleviate suffering or advanced physiological knowledge.
7. In 1900, protection was granted wild animals in captivity.
8. The animal welfare act was established in 2006, offenders could be fined up to £20,000, imprisoned for six months, and would also pay any costs incurred by the prosecution. Including the cost of caring for, and treating the animal that was harmed.
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Q:
List 7 factors that make individuals likely to abuse animals.
A:
1. Gender.
2. Age.
3. If they’ve witnessed violence and animal cruelty.
4. Family and parenting experiences.
5. Displacement of aggression.
6. Cognitive Errors.
7. Empathy and emotion regulation.
Q:
Describe 7 factors that make individuals likely to abuse animals.
A:
1. Gender, males more likely regardless of age group.
2. Age, more likely to abuse animals during late adolescence and early adulthood.
3. Young people that witness violence between family members, or witness animals being harmed, are 3 times more likely to later be cruel to animals than peers who did not witness violence (Baldry, 2005). 
4. Family and parenting experiences, the likelihood of engaging in animal cruelty increases if person abuse during their childhood.
5. When children with someone who abuses them, they are likely to displace their aggression from humans to animals instead.
6. Cognitive errors such as aggressive cues and exposure to violence leads to hostile attribution bias. This leads to the creation of moral disengagement strategies, person believes animal will hurt their friends, so they will hurt animal before they can do so. This bias also leads to them viewing animals as aggressive for no reason.
7. Psychopaths struggle with empathy and emotion regulation. This causes them to be less empathetic towards animals, which makes them more likely to hurt them. Not being able to regulate emotions, can make people more impulsive. Will use animal as outlet when overly emotional.
8. However, very good emotional regulators can also abuse animals. They are able to plan how they will abuse animal, and won’t let their emotions affect this. 
Q:
Describe the classification scheme of animal cruelty motivations (Kellert & Felthous).
A:
Developed 9 animal cruelty motivations from interviewing people that abuse animals.
People abused animals to:
1. Control the animal (abuse used as discipline).
2. Retaliate against animal.
3. Satisfy prejudice against breed or species (hatred of cats).
4. Express aggression through animal (dog fighting).
5. Enhance their own aggressiveness (using animal as target practice).
6. Shock people for amusement.
7. Retaliate against another person (hurt animal to upset owner).
8. Displace aggression from person to animal.
9. Act out non-specific sadism.
Q:
Describe the displaced aggression theory.
A:
1. People hurt animals and people to express anger and to exert control that is removed from the original source (parent who abused them, can’t take anger on them, so do it to something weaker).

Q:
Describe the Sadistic Theory.
A:
1. People hurt animals because it gives them pleasure, and they also enjoy the reactions of others.
2. They will only do this to animals they feel superior to, and if they can successfully gain power over them.
Q:
Describe SLT’s explanations of animal cruelty.
A:
1. People socialised to expect and seek approval from those they love (Dollard & Millard, 1950).
2. If this expectation isn’t met, they become frustrated and angry. 
3. They will then transfer these feelings to things deemed weaker than them (animals), as they cannot retaliate (Wright & Hensley, 2003).
4. Engaging in animal abuse can also be caused by being exposed to that behaviour as a child.


Q:
What is animal cruelty?
A:
This is socially unacceptable behaviour that intentionally causes unnecessary pain, suffering or distress to an animal, and can lead to their death (Ascione & Lockwood, 1998).
Animal Cruelty - Forensic Psychology

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