Social Psychology at University Of Groningen | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Social Psychology an der University of Groningen

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What is aggression?

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Any behavior that involves the intention to harm another 

- young children: physical aggression

- adults: emotionally harm others


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What is nonverbal behavior?

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Facial expressions, gestures, mannerisms, and movements by which one communicates with others

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What is conformity?

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The altering of one's behaviors and opinions to match those of other people or to match other people's expectations


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What are the three ways of inducing compliance?

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1) Foot in the door: If one agrees to a small request-> more likely to comply with a large request

2) Door in the face: If one refuses to a large comply-> more likely to comply with a smaller request 

3) Low-balling: If one agrees to buy a product for a certain price-> more likely to comply with a request to pay more for the product

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What is the Justifying Effort?

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a person's tendency to attribute a value to an outcome, which they had to put effort into achieving, greater than the objective value of the outcome. 

-> resolve the dissonance by inflating the importance of the group and their commitment to it -> Justification of effort

(e.g. initiation rites)

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What are the factors that affect the persuasiveness of a message?

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1) source: sources who are both attractive+ credible are the most persuasive 

2) content: strong arguments appeal to emotions-> are the most persuasive + mere-exposure effect (repeating messages over and over)

3) receiver 

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What are Outgroups?

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Groups to which a individual doesn't belong to

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What is group polarization?

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=The process by which initial attitudes of groups become more extreme over time

-> initial attitudes of group members determine if the group becomes riskier or more cautious 


The tendency of a group to make decisions more extreme than the initial inclination of its members
 
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What are the two primary reasons for conformity?

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1) Normative influence: the tendency for people to conform in order to fit in with the group  

2) Informational influence: the tendency for people to conform when they assume that the behavior of others represents the correct way to respond

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Although Tarika always agrees to help members of her sorority when asked, she seldom agrees to help those in other sororities. What is Tarika's behavior an example of?

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Ingroup favoritism 

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What is the evolutionary explanation for altruism?

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Altruism confers benefits 

-> may increase the chance that one's genes will be transmitted  (inclusive fitness) => kin selection

->  increases likelihood that other members of social group will reciprocate when needed => reciprocal helping

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Which processes maintain the stereotypes?

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-directed attention: stereotypes guide attention toward information that confirms the stereotype and away from disconfirming evidence

-memory bias: people become biased to match stereotypes


=> psychological reasoning error of seeing correlations that does not exist 

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  • 384 Studierende
  • 9 Lernmaterialien

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Q:

What is aggression?

A:

Any behavior that involves the intention to harm another 

- young children: physical aggression

- adults: emotionally harm others


Q:

What is nonverbal behavior?

A:

Facial expressions, gestures, mannerisms, and movements by which one communicates with others

Q:

What is conformity?

A:

The altering of one's behaviors and opinions to match those of other people or to match other people's expectations


Q:

What are the three ways of inducing compliance?

A:

1) Foot in the door: If one agrees to a small request-> more likely to comply with a large request

2) Door in the face: If one refuses to a large comply-> more likely to comply with a smaller request 

3) Low-balling: If one agrees to buy a product for a certain price-> more likely to comply with a request to pay more for the product

Q:

What is the Justifying Effort?

A:

a person's tendency to attribute a value to an outcome, which they had to put effort into achieving, greater than the objective value of the outcome. 

-> resolve the dissonance by inflating the importance of the group and their commitment to it -> Justification of effort

(e.g. initiation rites)

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What are the factors that affect the persuasiveness of a message?

A:

1) source: sources who are both attractive+ credible are the most persuasive 

2) content: strong arguments appeal to emotions-> are the most persuasive + mere-exposure effect (repeating messages over and over)

3) receiver 

Q:

What are Outgroups?

A:

Groups to which a individual doesn't belong to

Q:

What is group polarization?

A:

=The process by which initial attitudes of groups become more extreme over time

-> initial attitudes of group members determine if the group becomes riskier or more cautious 


The tendency of a group to make decisions more extreme than the initial inclination of its members
 
Q:

What are the two primary reasons for conformity?

A:

1) Normative influence: the tendency for people to conform in order to fit in with the group  

2) Informational influence: the tendency for people to conform when they assume that the behavior of others represents the correct way to respond

Q:

Although Tarika always agrees to help members of her sorority when asked, she seldom agrees to help those in other sororities. What is Tarika's behavior an example of?

A:

Ingroup favoritism 

Q:

What is the evolutionary explanation for altruism?

A:

Altruism confers benefits 

-> may increase the chance that one's genes will be transmitted  (inclusive fitness) => kin selection

->  increases likelihood that other members of social group will reciprocate when needed => reciprocal helping

Q:

Which processes maintain the stereotypes?

A:

-directed attention: stereotypes guide attention toward information that confirms the stereotype and away from disconfirming evidence

-memory bias: people become biased to match stereotypes


=> psychological reasoning error of seeing correlations that does not exist 

Social Psychology

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