Biological Psychology at University Of Groningen | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Biological Psychology an der University of Groningen

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Suppose a study finds that hair length has a negative correlation with body weight: People with shorter hair weigh more.. Should you grow your hair to lose weight?

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No, because correlation doesn't equal causation. Other variables could be affecting this relationship. For example, a person's sex is a third variable. Men typically have shorter hair and weight more.

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What is the size of effect?

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Size of effect measures the strength of relationships between variables

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What is the difference between external and internal validity?

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External validity = the degree to which the findings of a study can be generalized to other people, settings or situations

-> study is externally valid if he participants accurately represent the intended population + if the variables were manipulated and measured in ways similar to how they occur in the real world


Internal validity= the degree to which the effects observed in an experiment are due to the independent variable and not to confounds

-> Experiment must be well designed + well controlled, the participants must be similar as possible , and there must be a control group

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What is the purpose of informed consent?

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To inform potential research participants about the risks and benefits of participating in a particular study 

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What is debriefing?

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After a research study, the researcher explain to the participants the reason for the study and any deception involved

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Why do all Independent variables must have a treatment and a comparison level?

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-> The two levels are necessary for researchers, so that they can study the causal relationship between two variables


-experimental group= the participants in an study that receive the treatment

-control group= the participants in an experiment who receive no intervention related to the variable being investigated

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What is culturally sensitive research?

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Researches that takes into account the significant role that cultures plays in how people feel, think and act

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What is deception?

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Mislead the participants about the study's goal or not fully reveal what will take place. -> Sometimes necessary, because telling the study's specific goals may alter the participant's behavior.

- Debriefing about the actual goals at the end of the study 

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How does random assignment help deal with existing differences between participants?

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When participants are randomly assigned to study conditions, known and unknown differences between the participants tend to balance out

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What is a sample? And was ist the Process of sampling?

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sample= A subset of a population


sampling= the process by which researchers select people from the population to be in the sample 

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What are random Assignments?

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-Placing research participants into the conditions of an experiment in such a way that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the independent variable

-not using random assignment can create confounds that limit causal claims

-> assign participants to the experimental and control groups

-individual differences are bound to exist among participants

-> differences will tend to average out when participants are assigned to either control or experiment group randomly

-tends to balance out known and unknown factors, given a large enough sample

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What are ethical issues to consider in research with animals?

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1) The Health and well-being

-> Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACC) ensures that animals are treated properly in studies

2) Fairness

->Scientists must balance their concern for individual animals' lives with their concern for humanity's future

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Q:

Suppose a study finds that hair length has a negative correlation with body weight: People with shorter hair weigh more.. Should you grow your hair to lose weight?

A:

No, because correlation doesn't equal causation. Other variables could be affecting this relationship. For example, a person's sex is a third variable. Men typically have shorter hair and weight more.

Q:

What is the size of effect?

A:

Size of effect measures the strength of relationships between variables

Q:

What is the difference between external and internal validity?

A:

External validity = the degree to which the findings of a study can be generalized to other people, settings or situations

-> study is externally valid if he participants accurately represent the intended population + if the variables were manipulated and measured in ways similar to how they occur in the real world


Internal validity= the degree to which the effects observed in an experiment are due to the independent variable and not to confounds

-> Experiment must be well designed + well controlled, the participants must be similar as possible , and there must be a control group

Q:

What is the purpose of informed consent?

A:

To inform potential research participants about the risks and benefits of participating in a particular study 

Q:

What is debriefing?

A:

After a research study, the researcher explain to the participants the reason for the study and any deception involved

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Why do all Independent variables must have a treatment and a comparison level?

A:

-> The two levels are necessary for researchers, so that they can study the causal relationship between two variables


-experimental group= the participants in an study that receive the treatment

-control group= the participants in an experiment who receive no intervention related to the variable being investigated

Q:

What is culturally sensitive research?

A:

Researches that takes into account the significant role that cultures plays in how people feel, think and act

Q:

What is deception?

A:

Mislead the participants about the study's goal or not fully reveal what will take place. -> Sometimes necessary, because telling the study's specific goals may alter the participant's behavior.

- Debriefing about the actual goals at the end of the study 

Q:

How does random assignment help deal with existing differences between participants?

A:

When participants are randomly assigned to study conditions, known and unknown differences between the participants tend to balance out

Q:

What is a sample? And was ist the Process of sampling?

A:

sample= A subset of a population


sampling= the process by which researchers select people from the population to be in the sample 

Q:

What are random Assignments?

A:

-Placing research participants into the conditions of an experiment in such a way that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the independent variable

-not using random assignment can create confounds that limit causal claims

-> assign participants to the experimental and control groups

-individual differences are bound to exist among participants

-> differences will tend to average out when participants are assigned to either control or experiment group randomly

-tends to balance out known and unknown factors, given a large enough sample

Q:

What are ethical issues to consider in research with animals?

A:

1) The Health and well-being

-> Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACC) ensures that animals are treated properly in studies

2) Fairness

->Scientists must balance their concern for individual animals' lives with their concern for humanity's future

Biological Psychology

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