Sleep & Visual Neuroscience at University Of Fribourg | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Sleep & Visual Neuroscience an der University of Fribourg

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Aristotle vs Plato

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Plato believed brain was locus of the mind

Aristotle placed it in the heart, with the brain serving as a cooling mechanism for blood


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Mind-body problem

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How can a physical substance give rise to mental experiences?


Dualism: Mind/Body separate substances (Descartes)


Reductionism: Mind explained solely in terms of biological/physical theory

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Neuroscience History

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- Early anatomist believed ventricels were important

1810 Phrenology: Brain performs different functions that are associated with different behaviours -> Functional spezialisation

1824-1880 Broca: Era of cortical localization -> Suggested a specialized language faculty in the brain

After Broca: Suggest at least two language faculties in the brain (comprehension/production)

1843 - 1926 Golgi: Staining method to identify the neurons

1852-1934 Cajal: Neurons and their communication language -> Action potentials

1891-1976 Penfield: Homonculus, direct electrical stimulation of cortex produces mental sensation of thinking etc. 

1950 Behaviourism: Black box

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Neuroscience History 2


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1936 Touring: Turing machine -> can solve any problem that is calculable

1950 MIT: Computer metaphor -> Human thinking is like a computer program

2015/16 Deep Learning: Alpha Go

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Critical question in neuroscience

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How, when and where cognitive processes occur in the brain

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Cognitive Neuroscience in 1970


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Hubel & Wisel discover visual cortex

Marr bridges gap between perception and brain mechanism


CT, MRI enable precise images of the brain

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Challenges in cognitive neuroscience
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1. Studying the mind without the brain (problem because they are not truly independent)

2. Where not How (fMRI tells us where cognition occurs but now how it does)

3. The new phrenology?? (do we really need cognitive neuroscience for understanding psychological processes)

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Repetitioin Neural Electrical Activity
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Axon propagate action potentials. 


The electrical input from lots of different neurons is summed together. If it exceeds a threshold then the receiving neuron will also generate an action potential. 

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Single cell recording

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- Used in the beginning for basic Studies, they just focused on single cells

- Direct recording of action potential firing rates from individual neurons

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Implanted electrodes


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- record local field potentials

- used for epilepsy seizure diagnosis (record & stimulate patient)

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EEG
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- measures electrical fields on the scalp

- alpha waves (oscillations waves 8-12 sec)

- high temporal resolution

- non invasive

- can be synchronised with external event

- measures synaptic vs spiking activity

- mostly reflect postsynaptic dendritic potentials (ESPs/IPSPs)

- is averaged over many events to reduce effects of random neural firing

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Cognitive Neuroscience Aim

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To provide a brain-based account of cognitive processes

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  • 31726 Karteikarten
  • 410 Studierende
  • 2 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Sleep & Visual Neuroscience Kurs an der University of Fribourg - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

Aristotle vs Plato

A:

Plato believed brain was locus of the mind

Aristotle placed it in the heart, with the brain serving as a cooling mechanism for blood


Q:

Mind-body problem

A:

How can a physical substance give rise to mental experiences?


Dualism: Mind/Body separate substances (Descartes)


Reductionism: Mind explained solely in terms of biological/physical theory

Q:

Neuroscience History

A:

- Early anatomist believed ventricels were important

1810 Phrenology: Brain performs different functions that are associated with different behaviours -> Functional spezialisation

1824-1880 Broca: Era of cortical localization -> Suggested a specialized language faculty in the brain

After Broca: Suggest at least two language faculties in the brain (comprehension/production)

1843 - 1926 Golgi: Staining method to identify the neurons

1852-1934 Cajal: Neurons and their communication language -> Action potentials

1891-1976 Penfield: Homonculus, direct electrical stimulation of cortex produces mental sensation of thinking etc. 

1950 Behaviourism: Black box

Q:

Neuroscience History 2


A:

1936 Touring: Turing machine -> can solve any problem that is calculable

1950 MIT: Computer metaphor -> Human thinking is like a computer program

2015/16 Deep Learning: Alpha Go

Q:

Critical question in neuroscience

A:

How, when and where cognitive processes occur in the brain

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Cognitive Neuroscience in 1970


A:

Hubel & Wisel discover visual cortex

Marr bridges gap between perception and brain mechanism


CT, MRI enable precise images of the brain

Q:


Challenges in cognitive neuroscience
A:

1. Studying the mind without the brain (problem because they are not truly independent)

2. Where not How (fMRI tells us where cognition occurs but now how it does)

3. The new phrenology?? (do we really need cognitive neuroscience for understanding psychological processes)

Q:


Repetitioin Neural Electrical Activity
A:

Axon propagate action potentials. 


The electrical input from lots of different neurons is summed together. If it exceeds a threshold then the receiving neuron will also generate an action potential. 

Q:

Single cell recording

A:

- Used in the beginning for basic Studies, they just focused on single cells

- Direct recording of action potential firing rates from individual neurons

Q:

Implanted electrodes


A:

- record local field potentials

- used for epilepsy seizure diagnosis (record & stimulate patient)

Q:


EEG
A:

- measures electrical fields on the scalp

- alpha waves (oscillations waves 8-12 sec)

- high temporal resolution

- non invasive

- can be synchronised with external event

- measures synaptic vs spiking activity

- mostly reflect postsynaptic dendritic potentials (ESPs/IPSPs)

- is averaged over many events to reduce effects of random neural firing

Q:

Cognitive Neuroscience Aim

A:

To provide a brain-based account of cognitive processes

Sleep & Visual Neuroscience

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