Physiology at University Of Central Lancashire | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Physiology an der University of Central Lancashire

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Heart valves and circulation of blood

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Both atria and ventricle are relaxed (diastole) 

Blood flows into right atrium from superior and inferior vena cava and coronary sinus. Blood flows into the left atrium from the 4 pulmonary verins

2 atrioventricular valves (tricuspid and mitral ) are both open so blood flows unimpeded from atria to ventricle, filling around 80%. 2 semilunar valves (pulmonary and aortic valves) are closed, preventing back flow of blood into right and left ventricles ( pulmonary trunk is on the right and aorta is on the left )

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What is the most common cause of heart failure?

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In adults - inability of the left ventricle to fill (diastolic performance) and eject blood (systolic performance)

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What is a single cardiac cycle?

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A complete relaxation and contraction of both atria and ventricles ( diastole and systole )

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What is the cardiac cycle defined as?

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Coordinated sequence of electrical and mechanical events occurring from the start of one heartbeat to the start of the next

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How do pressure changes occur?

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By conductive electrochemical changes within the myocardium that result in contraction of cardiac muscle

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How does conduction system of the heart travel?

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Sinoatrial node - bachmans bundle - Atrioventricular node ( signal passes from SV node here via the anterior internodal, middle internodal, posterior internodal) - AV bundle (bundle of his) - Right and left bundle branches - Purkinje fibres

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Phases of the cardiac cycle 

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Atrial contraction (mitral valve closes)

Ventricular isovolumetric contraction - occurs when both valves are closed (aortic valve opens)

Rapid ventricular ejection

Slow ventricular ejection (aortic valve closes)

Ventricular isovolumetric relaxation occurs when both valves are closed (mitral valve opens)

Ventricular filling

Diastasis 

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Conduction in the heart - cardiac muscle

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Desmosomes - hold muscle cells together tightly

Intercalated discs - link muscle cells together and contain desmosomes and gap junctions

Gap junctions - allow passage of action potentials from one cell to the next, very quickly. This allows the cardiac muscle to function together as a syncytium 

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Physiology of cardiac muscle

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cardiac tissue has distinctive electrical characteristics, intercalated discs allow action potentials to pass adjacent cells, myocardial cells can spontaneously depolarize (automaticity)

Spontaneous depolarization generates a pacemaker potential 

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Cardiac muscle as a syncytium 

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Heart is composed of two syncytium's

Atrial: constitutes the walls of the atria 

Ventricular: walls of the two ventricles 

Atria separated from ventricles by fibrous tissue that surround the two atrio-ventricular valve openings.

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What is the importance of fibrous tissue in the heart?

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The fibrous tissue that seats the cardiac valve lacks gap junctions and electrically isolates atria from the ventricles (provides a border)

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What is the approx blood pressure in the pulmonary and systemic circuit?

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Pulmonary - 28/8 mmhg

Systemic - 120/80 mmhg

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Q:

Heart valves and circulation of blood

A:

Both atria and ventricle are relaxed (diastole) 

Blood flows into right atrium from superior and inferior vena cava and coronary sinus. Blood flows into the left atrium from the 4 pulmonary verins

2 atrioventricular valves (tricuspid and mitral ) are both open so blood flows unimpeded from atria to ventricle, filling around 80%. 2 semilunar valves (pulmonary and aortic valves) are closed, preventing back flow of blood into right and left ventricles ( pulmonary trunk is on the right and aorta is on the left )

Q:

What is the most common cause of heart failure?

A:

In adults - inability of the left ventricle to fill (diastolic performance) and eject blood (systolic performance)

Q:

What is a single cardiac cycle?

A:

A complete relaxation and contraction of both atria and ventricles ( diastole and systole )

Q:

What is the cardiac cycle defined as?

A:

Coordinated sequence of electrical and mechanical events occurring from the start of one heartbeat to the start of the next

Q:

How do pressure changes occur?

A:

By conductive electrochemical changes within the myocardium that result in contraction of cardiac muscle

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

How does conduction system of the heart travel?

A:

Sinoatrial node - bachmans bundle - Atrioventricular node ( signal passes from SV node here via the anterior internodal, middle internodal, posterior internodal) - AV bundle (bundle of his) - Right and left bundle branches - Purkinje fibres

Q:

Phases of the cardiac cycle 

A:

Atrial contraction (mitral valve closes)

Ventricular isovolumetric contraction - occurs when both valves are closed (aortic valve opens)

Rapid ventricular ejection

Slow ventricular ejection (aortic valve closes)

Ventricular isovolumetric relaxation occurs when both valves are closed (mitral valve opens)

Ventricular filling

Diastasis 

Q:

Conduction in the heart - cardiac muscle

A:

Desmosomes - hold muscle cells together tightly

Intercalated discs - link muscle cells together and contain desmosomes and gap junctions

Gap junctions - allow passage of action potentials from one cell to the next, very quickly. This allows the cardiac muscle to function together as a syncytium 

Q:

Physiology of cardiac muscle

A:

cardiac tissue has distinctive electrical characteristics, intercalated discs allow action potentials to pass adjacent cells, myocardial cells can spontaneously depolarize (automaticity)

Spontaneous depolarization generates a pacemaker potential 

Q:

Cardiac muscle as a syncytium 

A:

Heart is composed of two syncytium's

Atrial: constitutes the walls of the atria 

Ventricular: walls of the two ventricles 

Atria separated from ventricles by fibrous tissue that surround the two atrio-ventricular valve openings.

Q:

What is the importance of fibrous tissue in the heart?

A:

The fibrous tissue that seats the cardiac valve lacks gap junctions and electrically isolates atria from the ventricles (provides a border)

Q:

What is the approx blood pressure in the pulmonary and systemic circuit?

A:

Pulmonary - 28/8 mmhg

Systemic - 120/80 mmhg

Physiology

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