Immunolology at University Of Cape Town | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Immunolology an der University of Cape Town

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Mucosal Innate immunity

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• Pathogens interact with epithelial cells • Epithelial cells secrete anti- pathogen molecules and mucus into the lumen • Epithelial cells release cytokines that 1: prime immune cells in the intestine and attract other immune cells to the intestine and 2: cause smooth muscle cells to contract: peristalsis- • WEEP and SWEEP

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Adaptive immunity at mucosal sites: Mucosal associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)

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Mucosal surfaces: protect from exterior
environment
Very important: e.g. lung and gut
Over 50% of Lymphoid tissue
Un-encapsulated, Subepithelial aggregates
Has specialised lymphoid structures (e.g.Peyers
Patches and Lamina Propria

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B cells

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• Develop in the bone Bone marrow
• Mature/differentiate in Spleen and Lymph nodes
• Recognise Antigen via the B Cell Receptor (BCR)
• In response exposure to antigen the B cell will clonally expand and produce
antibody which has the same specificity as the BCR: monoclonal response
• Typically a number of B cell may respond to a challenge this leads to a
polyclonal antibody response
• The B cell will frequently also terminally differentiate into a plasma cell

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Humoral Adaptive
Immune Response

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1) B cell activation (can be T cell
dependent or T cell
independent)
2) Antibody Production in lymph
nodes, spleen and MALT
3) Isotype Class Switching
4) Distribution and Function of
Different Ig Isotypes
5) Inhibition of infection and toxins

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 Inhibition of infection and toxins

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1) Neutralization
2) Complement activation
3) Opsonization
4) ADCC

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How does a B cell primarily recognize antigen?

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Antibody production starts 
with antigen binding to a 
BCR on a B cell 

• BCR: Monomer of 
immunoglobulin (antibody) 
• Binding of epitope induces 
signaling leading to a range 
of responses: activation of B 
cells, plasma cell formation, 
secretion of antibody 

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T cell independent (TI)

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B cell binds antigen and produces antibody without T cell help

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Outline the TI B cell antibody response

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B cell may bind free
antigen (1) and launch an
IgM response
APC
B cell may have antigen
presented to it by an APC.
The APC may secrete
cytokine such as BAF F as
extra information for the B
cell. This will allow the B
cell to switch from IgM to
IgG. This is called class
switching.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Outline a T cell dependent antibody response.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

B cell encounters 1 epitope of its cognate antigen via its BCR.
The B cell will also present antigen on its MHC to the TCR of a CD4 T cell.
The B cell and T cell will interact the MHC-TCR relationship. Addtionally, they will interact
via CD40-CD40L. The T cell will also secrete cytokine that the B cell will recognize .
This give the B cell LOADS of information. This allows the B cell to proliferate INTO two B
cell lineages: Memory B cells and Plasma B cells

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Memory B cells

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

will move around the body and are really good for starting new antibody
responses.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Plasma cells

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

antibody factories and will pump out antibody to help control an
infection.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is class switching?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

B cell may have antigen
presented to it by an APC.
The APC may secrete
cytokine such as BAF F as
extra information for the B
cell. This will allow the B
cell to switch from IgM to
IgG.

Lösung ausblenden
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Q:

Mucosal Innate immunity

A:

• Pathogens interact with epithelial cells • Epithelial cells secrete anti- pathogen molecules and mucus into the lumen • Epithelial cells release cytokines that 1: prime immune cells in the intestine and attract other immune cells to the intestine and 2: cause smooth muscle cells to contract: peristalsis- • WEEP and SWEEP

Q:

Adaptive immunity at mucosal sites: Mucosal associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)

A:

Mucosal surfaces: protect from exterior
environment
Very important: e.g. lung and gut
Over 50% of Lymphoid tissue
Un-encapsulated, Subepithelial aggregates
Has specialised lymphoid structures (e.g.Peyers
Patches and Lamina Propria

Q:

B cells

A:

• Develop in the bone Bone marrow
• Mature/differentiate in Spleen and Lymph nodes
• Recognise Antigen via the B Cell Receptor (BCR)
• In response exposure to antigen the B cell will clonally expand and produce
antibody which has the same specificity as the BCR: monoclonal response
• Typically a number of B cell may respond to a challenge this leads to a
polyclonal antibody response
• The B cell will frequently also terminally differentiate into a plasma cell

Q:

Humoral Adaptive
Immune Response

A:

1) B cell activation (can be T cell
dependent or T cell
independent)
2) Antibody Production in lymph
nodes, spleen and MALT
3) Isotype Class Switching
4) Distribution and Function of
Different Ig Isotypes
5) Inhibition of infection and toxins

Q:

 Inhibition of infection and toxins

A:

1) Neutralization
2) Complement activation
3) Opsonization
4) ADCC

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

How does a B cell primarily recognize antigen?

A:

Antibody production starts 
with antigen binding to a 
BCR on a B cell 

• BCR: Monomer of 
immunoglobulin (antibody) 
• Binding of epitope induces 
signaling leading to a range 
of responses: activation of B 
cells, plasma cell formation, 
secretion of antibody 

Q:

T cell independent (TI)

A:

B cell binds antigen and produces antibody without T cell help

Q:

Outline the TI B cell antibody response

A:

B cell may bind free
antigen (1) and launch an
IgM response
APC
B cell may have antigen
presented to it by an APC.
The APC may secrete
cytokine such as BAF F as
extra information for the B
cell. This will allow the B
cell to switch from IgM to
IgG. This is called class
switching.

Q:

Outline a T cell dependent antibody response.

A:

B cell encounters 1 epitope of its cognate antigen via its BCR.
The B cell will also present antigen on its MHC to the TCR of a CD4 T cell.
The B cell and T cell will interact the MHC-TCR relationship. Addtionally, they will interact
via CD40-CD40L. The T cell will also secrete cytokine that the B cell will recognize .
This give the B cell LOADS of information. This allows the B cell to proliferate INTO two B
cell lineages: Memory B cells and Plasma B cells

Q:

Memory B cells

A:

will move around the body and are really good for starting new antibody
responses.

Q:

Plasma cells

A:

antibody factories and will pump out antibody to help control an
infection.

Q:

What is class switching?

A:

B cell may have antigen
presented to it by an APC.
The APC may secrete
cytokine such as BAF F as
extra information for the B
cell. This will allow the B
cell to switch from IgM to
IgG.

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