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Lernmaterialien für FUNCTIONAL TESTS an der University of Cape Town

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A patient performing a single-leg squat shows medial knee deviation. What does this indicate?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

An imbalance in the hip abductor/adductor coactivation ratio, with adductors being stronger.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is the BESS test? Describe it.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Balance Error Scoring System

Six conditions are tested for 20 seconds, barefoot with the eyes closed and hands on hips:

  1. Double leg stance with feet together
  2. Single leg stance on dominant foot
  3. Tandem stance with non-dominant foot in rear

Each of these are tested on a firm surface, and on an unstable surface like a foam pad.

If the subject makes an error (e.g. opening eyes, moving hands, lifting foot off of surface etc.) the examiner scores a point against them. The number of errors is added up to obtain a score out of 60.


The normative value for the BESS test is 12 +/- 7 points.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is the Star Excursion Balance Test? What does it demonstrate?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

An 8-pointed star is created with lengths of tape stuck to the floor. The participant stands on one leg in the centre with their hands on their hips, and uses the non-stable foot to tap the tape in each direction, beginning in front and progressing contralateral to the stable foot.


It demonstrates ankle stability.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What does a swollen or enlarged tibial tuberosity indicate?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Osgood-Schlatter disease. This is common in young boys and is due to overuse, causing repeated tension on the growth plate of the upper tibia.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How is the LCL/varus stress test performed, and what does it indicate?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The patient lies supine with the knee in 30° flexion. Varus stress is applied to the knee. If there is excessive gapping of the lateral joint, the test is positive. This indicates a tear of the lateral collateral ligament.


Bonus: if the test is positive in full extension, the PCL may be compromised as well.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How is the MCL/valgus stress test performed, and what does it indicate?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The patient lies supine with the knee in 30° flexion. Valgus stress is applied to the knee. If there is excessive gapping of the lateral joint, the test is positive. This indicates a tear of the medial collateral ligament.


Bonus: if the test is positive in full extension, the PCL may be compromised as well.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How is Lachman's test performed, and what does it indicate?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The patient lies supine with the knee flexed to 20° . The femur is stabilised with one hand, and the tibia is shifted anteriorly with the other hand. A soft end feel results in a positive test, which indicates a torn anterior cruciate ligament.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What muscle(s) works together with the anterior cruciate ligament to hold the tibia in place relative to the femur?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Hamstrings. For this reason, people who are undergoing ACL rehabilitation should also strengthen their hamstrings.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How is the posterior drawer test performed, and what does it indicate?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The patient lies supine with the knee flexed to 90°. The clinician stabilises the foot on the plinth, then uses both hands to hold the leg along the tibia. They then attempt to push the tibia posteriorly. A positive test (abnormal laxity) indicates a torn posterior cruciate ligament.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe McMurray's test for medial meniscal tears.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The patient lies supine with their knee flexed more than 90°. The clinician holds the knee with one hand along the medial meniscus. The other hand externally rotates the foot. The clinician then applies valgus stress and slowly extends the knee.


A positive test is indicated by pain and indicates a meniscal tear. If there is a loose fragment of meniscus, there may be a clicking or snapping sound and/or gravelly sensation against the hand during extension.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe McMurray's test for lateral meniscal tears.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The patient lies supine with their knee flexed more than 90°. The clinician holds the knee with one hand along the lateral meniscus. The other hand internally rotates the foot. The clinician then applies varus stress and slowly extends the knee.


A positive test is indicated by pain and indicates a meniscal tear. If there is a loose fragment of meniscus, there may be a clicking or snapping sound and/or gravelly sensation against the hand during extension.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What does Trendellenburg's sign indicate?

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Poor hip stability / glute activation

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Q:

A patient performing a single-leg squat shows medial knee deviation. What does this indicate?

A:

An imbalance in the hip abductor/adductor coactivation ratio, with adductors being stronger.

Q:

What is the BESS test? Describe it.

A:

Balance Error Scoring System

Six conditions are tested for 20 seconds, barefoot with the eyes closed and hands on hips:

  1. Double leg stance with feet together
  2. Single leg stance on dominant foot
  3. Tandem stance with non-dominant foot in rear

Each of these are tested on a firm surface, and on an unstable surface like a foam pad.

If the subject makes an error (e.g. opening eyes, moving hands, lifting foot off of surface etc.) the examiner scores a point against them. The number of errors is added up to obtain a score out of 60.


The normative value for the BESS test is 12 +/- 7 points.

Q:

What is the Star Excursion Balance Test? What does it demonstrate?

A:

An 8-pointed star is created with lengths of tape stuck to the floor. The participant stands on one leg in the centre with their hands on their hips, and uses the non-stable foot to tap the tape in each direction, beginning in front and progressing contralateral to the stable foot.


It demonstrates ankle stability.

Q:

What does a swollen or enlarged tibial tuberosity indicate?

A:

Osgood-Schlatter disease. This is common in young boys and is due to overuse, causing repeated tension on the growth plate of the upper tibia.

Q:

How is the LCL/varus stress test performed, and what does it indicate?

A:

The patient lies supine with the knee in 30° flexion. Varus stress is applied to the knee. If there is excessive gapping of the lateral joint, the test is positive. This indicates a tear of the lateral collateral ligament.


Bonus: if the test is positive in full extension, the PCL may be compromised as well.

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

How is the MCL/valgus stress test performed, and what does it indicate?

A:

The patient lies supine with the knee in 30° flexion. Valgus stress is applied to the knee. If there is excessive gapping of the lateral joint, the test is positive. This indicates a tear of the medial collateral ligament.


Bonus: if the test is positive in full extension, the PCL may be compromised as well.

Q:

How is Lachman's test performed, and what does it indicate?

A:

The patient lies supine with the knee flexed to 20° . The femur is stabilised with one hand, and the tibia is shifted anteriorly with the other hand. A soft end feel results in a positive test, which indicates a torn anterior cruciate ligament.

Q:

What muscle(s) works together with the anterior cruciate ligament to hold the tibia in place relative to the femur?

A:

Hamstrings. For this reason, people who are undergoing ACL rehabilitation should also strengthen their hamstrings.

Q:

How is the posterior drawer test performed, and what does it indicate?

A:

The patient lies supine with the knee flexed to 90°. The clinician stabilises the foot on the plinth, then uses both hands to hold the leg along the tibia. They then attempt to push the tibia posteriorly. A positive test (abnormal laxity) indicates a torn posterior cruciate ligament.

Q:

Describe McMurray's test for medial meniscal tears.

A:

The patient lies supine with their knee flexed more than 90°. The clinician holds the knee with one hand along the medial meniscus. The other hand externally rotates the foot. The clinician then applies valgus stress and slowly extends the knee.


A positive test is indicated by pain and indicates a meniscal tear. If there is a loose fragment of meniscus, there may be a clicking or snapping sound and/or gravelly sensation against the hand during extension.

Q:

Describe McMurray's test for lateral meniscal tears.

A:

The patient lies supine with their knee flexed more than 90°. The clinician holds the knee with one hand along the lateral meniscus. The other hand internally rotates the foot. The clinician then applies varus stress and slowly extends the knee.


A positive test is indicated by pain and indicates a meniscal tear. If there is a loose fragment of meniscus, there may be a clicking or snapping sound and/or gravelly sensation against the hand during extension.

Q:

What does Trendellenburg's sign indicate?

A:

Poor hip stability / glute activation

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