Biochemistry at University Of Cape Town | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Biochemistry an der University of Cape Town

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Common structure of membranes

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• Two-layered sheets of lipids with proteins embedded in them

Structure is highly fluid – lipids and proteins can move in the plane of membrane

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Two types of transport facilitated by transport proteins

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• Facilitated diffusion
• Active transport

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Glycolipids

Function of sugars

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• Contain glycerol or sphingosine
linked to fatty acid chains
• Have a sugar, instead of a
phosphate containing head
• Found on outer cell membrane of the
plasma membrane with sugars
exposed at the cell surface
• Sugars are covalently linked to amino
acids:
• Asparagine, serine or threonine

Used in cell recognition
• Blood groups classified based on arrangement of carbohydrates
• Groups A, B and O

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Two types of phospholipids

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• Glycerophospholipids contain:
• Glycerol
• 2 fatty acid chains
• Phosphate
• Choline
• Sphingolipids contain:
• Sphingosine
• 2 fatty acid chains
• Phosphate
• Choline

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Common feature of membranes

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amphipathic

• Have hydrophilic (water-loving, polar) region and hydrophobic (water-fearing
region, non-polar) region.

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Cholesterol

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• Contains a four-ring steroid structure together with a short
hydrocarbon chain and a hydroxyl group

• Found in some mammalian membranes
• Not usually found in most bacterial or any plant membranes
• Found in plasma membrane of mycoplasma (have no cell wall)

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Three major types of lipids found in membranes

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1. Phospholipids
2. Glycolipids
3. Cholesterol

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Membrane Bilayer

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Phospholipids and glycolipids have hydrophilic head and two
hydrophobic tails
• If submerged in water, the molecules will spontaneously associate to
form a bilayer.

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Two classes of proteins

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1. Integral proteins – extend across the bilayer. Have hydrophobic regions embedded
within the bilayer and interact with hydrophobic tails of phospholipids. Can be removed
by harsh treatments like detergents.
• Some of the integral proteins can traverse the membrane and have internal and
external polypeptide segments (transmembrane proteins).
2. Peripheral proteins – weakly bound to one or the other side of surface of the
membrane by non-covalent interaction. Can be removed by mild treatment which leave
the membrane intact.

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• Factors determining membrane fluidity

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• Low temperature:
• Hydrocarbon tails pack closely together to form a rigid structure “gel state”
• Increase in temperature,
lipids vibrate rapidly and “melt” into disordered
arrangement, making membranes more fluid
• Temperature at which the lipid bilayer melts is called the transition temperature
(10-40°C)
• Lipid composition
• Transition temperature is low if lipid tails are short or have double bonds.
• Cholesterol composition
• Rigid steroid ring interacts with neighbouring hydrophobic tail and stiffens
them, making membranes less fluid.

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• Three major components of biological membranes

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1. Lipids
2. Proteins
3. Sugars

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Membranes

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• Essential to life
• All living things require membranes to stay alive
• Provide barriers which give cells their:
• Outer boundaries (plasma membrane)
• Inner compartments (organelles)
• Are selectively permeable
• Control movement of substances in and out of cells
• Allow flow of information between cells by either:
• Recognising signal received from other cells
• Sending chemical or electrical signals to other cells
• Involved in the capture and release of energy

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Q:

Common structure of membranes

A:


• Two-layered sheets of lipids with proteins embedded in them

Structure is highly fluid – lipids and proteins can move in the plane of membrane

Q:

Two types of transport facilitated by transport proteins

A:

• Facilitated diffusion
• Active transport

Q:

Glycolipids

Function of sugars

A:

• Contain glycerol or sphingosine
linked to fatty acid chains
• Have a sugar, instead of a
phosphate containing head
• Found on outer cell membrane of the
plasma membrane with sugars
exposed at the cell surface
• Sugars are covalently linked to amino
acids:
• Asparagine, serine or threonine

Used in cell recognition
• Blood groups classified based on arrangement of carbohydrates
• Groups A, B and O

Q:

Two types of phospholipids

A:

• Glycerophospholipids contain:
• Glycerol
• 2 fatty acid chains
• Phosphate
• Choline
• Sphingolipids contain:
• Sphingosine
• 2 fatty acid chains
• Phosphate
• Choline

Q:

Common feature of membranes

A:

amphipathic

• Have hydrophilic (water-loving, polar) region and hydrophobic (water-fearing
region, non-polar) region.

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Cholesterol

A:

• Contains a four-ring steroid structure together with a short
hydrocarbon chain and a hydroxyl group

• Found in some mammalian membranes
• Not usually found in most bacterial or any plant membranes
• Found in plasma membrane of mycoplasma (have no cell wall)

Q:

Three major types of lipids found in membranes

A:

1. Phospholipids
2. Glycolipids
3. Cholesterol

Q:

Membrane Bilayer

A:

Phospholipids and glycolipids have hydrophilic head and two
hydrophobic tails
• If submerged in water, the molecules will spontaneously associate to
form a bilayer.

Q:

Two classes of proteins

A:

1. Integral proteins – extend across the bilayer. Have hydrophobic regions embedded
within the bilayer and interact with hydrophobic tails of phospholipids. Can be removed
by harsh treatments like detergents.
• Some of the integral proteins can traverse the membrane and have internal and
external polypeptide segments (transmembrane proteins).
2. Peripheral proteins – weakly bound to one or the other side of surface of the
membrane by non-covalent interaction. Can be removed by mild treatment which leave
the membrane intact.

Q:

• Factors determining membrane fluidity

A:

• Low temperature:
• Hydrocarbon tails pack closely together to form a rigid structure “gel state”
• Increase in temperature,
lipids vibrate rapidly and “melt” into disordered
arrangement, making membranes more fluid
• Temperature at which the lipid bilayer melts is called the transition temperature
(10-40°C)
• Lipid composition
• Transition temperature is low if lipid tails are short or have double bonds.
• Cholesterol composition
• Rigid steroid ring interacts with neighbouring hydrophobic tail and stiffens
them, making membranes less fluid.

Q:

• Three major components of biological membranes

A:

1. Lipids
2. Proteins
3. Sugars

Q:

Membranes

A:

• Essential to life
• All living things require membranes to stay alive
• Provide barriers which give cells their:
• Outer boundaries (plasma membrane)
• Inner compartments (organelles)
• Are selectively permeable
• Control movement of substances in and out of cells
• Allow flow of information between cells by either:
• Recognising signal received from other cells
• Sending chemical or electrical signals to other cells
• Involved in the capture and release of energy

Biochemistry

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