Histology at University of Cambridge

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What is the process of formation of bone in the skull?

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What is the extracellular matrix made of and what do they do?

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What does the process of mineralization in bones create to form a stable bone structure?

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What are the four things cartilage is formed of?

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What is the role of collagen fibres?

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What is perichondrium in cartilage?

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What are chondroblasts?

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What are chondrocytes?

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What are the three types of cartilage?

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What is hyaline cartilage composed of?

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What is elastic cartilage composed of?

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What is the name of the process in which cartilage is replaced to form bone?

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Exemplary flashcards for Histology at the University of Cambridge on StudySmarter:

Histology

What is the process of formation of bone in the skull?

bones in the
skull are made by direct formation of bone, called intramembranous ossification

Histology

What is the extracellular matrix made of and what do they do?

In cartilage the extracellular matrix is made of collagen together with proteins with long sugar chains attached to them (proteoglycans), which trap water and expand

Histology

What does the process of mineralization in bones create to form a stable bone structure?

In bones, the process of
mineralization generates calcium hydroxyapatite to make the stable bone structure. This
brings new challenges, as remodelling bone requires local dissolving of the bone and
regeneration of new bone.

Histology

What are the four things cartilage is formed of?

Cartilage is formed of chondroblasts and chondrocytes, collagen fibres and the hydrated
proteoglycans or 'ground substance'

Histology

What is the role of collagen fibres?

The collagen fibres provide strength to resist stretch
and the proteoglycan-trapped water allows cartilage to spring back into shape following
deformation

Histology

What is perichondrium in cartilage?

vascularized connective tissue sheath rich in collagen that surrounds
cartilage. It contains fibroblasts that secrete the materials for the collagen fibres. The inner
layer (next to cartilage matrix) contains fibroblasts/undifferentiated mesenchyme cells that
can differentiate to form chondroblasts

Histology

What are chondroblasts?

immature cartilage cells. They secrete extracellular matrix, but are not yet
rigidly embedded in that matrix.

Histology

What are chondrocytes?

mature cartilage cells that are embedded in rigid extracellular matrix.
These cells reside in small spaces within the matrix called lacunae. There may be more than
one cell per lacuna. Chondrocytes in hyaline cartilage that are grouped together are called
isogenic groups.

Histology

What are the three types of cartilage?

Hyaline Cartilage

Elastic Cartilage

Fibrocartilage

Histology

What is hyaline cartilage composed of?

Hyaline cartilage is composed of type II collagen and chondromucoprotein, a copolymer of
chondroitin sulfates and protein. Hyaline cartilage is found in the nose, trachea, where ribs join the sternum, and at the epiphyseal plate of long bones.

Histology

What is elastic cartilage composed of?

Elastic cartilage contains abundant elastic fibres, type II collagen and numerous cells.  It is found in the external ear (auricle) and the epiglottis.

Histology

What is the name of the process in which cartilage is replaced to form bone?

Cartilage is replaced by bone in a process called endochondral ossification

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