A Level Biology - OCR A at University of Cambridge

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Exemplary flashcards for A Level Biology - OCR A at the University of Cambridge on StudySmarter:

Describe the structure and function of the nucleolus. (2.1 g)

Exemplary flashcards for A Level Biology - OCR A at the University of Cambridge on StudySmarter:

Describe the structure and function of lysosomes. (2.1 g)

Exemplary flashcards for A Level Biology - OCR A at the University of Cambridge on StudySmarter:

Describe the structure and function of the cellulose cell wall. (2.1 g)

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Describe the structure and function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. (2.1 g)

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Describe the structure and functions of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (2.1 g)

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Why stain samples?

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How is magnification calculated?

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Exemplary flashcards for A Level Biology - OCR A at the University of Cambridge on StudySmarter:

What is used to calibrate the eyepiece graticule and what is it? What is the scale usually?

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Give four examples of stains for differential staining and their uses.

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Describe the structure and function of mitochondria. (2.1 g)

Exemplary flashcards for A Level Biology - OCR A at the University of Cambridge on StudySmarter:

Define the terms magnification and resolution.

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Laser scanning/confocal microscope

  • Advantages
  • Uses

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Exemplary flashcards for A Level Biology - OCR A at the University of Cambridge on StudySmarter:

A Level Biology - OCR A

Describe the structure and function of the nucleolus. (2.1 g)

Structure

  • Area inside the nucleus
  • Composed of proteins and RNA


Function

  • Ribosomes necessary for protein synthesis are produced here from RNA, which is used to produce rRNA.

A Level Biology - OCR A

Describe the structure and function of lysosomes. (2.1 g)

Structure

  • Specialised vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes, keeping them separate from the cell. 


Function

  • Breaking down waste material in cells, such as old organelles.
  • They break down the pathogens that phagocytes engulf so are important to the immune system.
  • Involved in apoptosis.

A Level Biology - OCR A

Describe the structure and function of the cellulose cell wall. (2.1 g)

Structure

  • The cell wall surrounds the plasma membrane.
  • Made of bundles of cellulose fibers. 
  • Not found in animal cells. Fungi cell walls are made of chitin, prokaryotic cell walls are made of peptidoglycan. 


Function

  • Maintaining cell and overall plant shape.
  • Preventing turgid cell from bursting.
  • Permeable to enable substances to pass in and out of the cell. 
  • Acts as a defense mechanism to protect the cell contents from invading pathogens. 

A Level Biology - OCR A

Describe the structure and function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. (2.1 g)

Structure

  • A system of membranes containing fluid-filled cavities called cisternae.
  • No ribosomes on the surface.


Function

  • Involved in absorption, transport and synthesis of lipids from the gut.
  • Contains enzymes that catalyse lipid metabolic reactions, including the synthesis of cholesterol, lipids, phospholipids and steroid hormones.

A Level Biology - OCR A

Describe the structure and functions of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (2.1 g)

Structure

  • System of membranes containing fluid-filled cavities (cisternae) that are continuous with the nuclear membrane. 
  • The surface is coated in ribosomes because there is a large surface area.


Function

  • Intracellular transport system, for which cisternae act as channels to transport substances around the cell.
  • Proteins are assembled in the ribosomes that coat the surface. 
  • These produced proteins then actively pass into the cisternae to be transported to the GA. 

A Level Biology - OCR A

Why stain samples?

  • This helps scientists to distinguish between different cells and cell components - specimens are colourless when cut into thin sections. 


  • Live and dead cells, such as by using eosin, which only stains dead cells, such as sperm. 

A Level Biology - OCR A

How is magnification calculated?

Magnification = I/A

I = image size

A = actual size

A Level Biology - OCR A

What is used to calibrate the eyepiece graticule and what is it? What is the scale usually?

  • A stage micrometer - a glass slide with a scale on it that is placed onto the microscope stage
  • This scale is usually 2mm long with subdivisions of 10 micrometers apart. 

A Level Biology - OCR A

Give four examples of stains for differential staining and their uses.

  • Acetic orcein binds to DNA and stains chromosomes dark red.
  • Eosin stains the cytoplasm.
  • Sudan red stains lipids.
  • Iodine solution stains cellulose yellow and starch blue-black. 

A Level Biology - OCR A

Describe the structure and function of mitochondria. (2.1 g)

Structure

  • Double membrane
  • The inner membrane is highly folded to form cristae, containing enzymes used aerobic respiration
  • Fluid filled interior is called the matrix
  • Contains a small amount of DNA - (mt)DNA


Function

  • Site of the final stages of cellular respiration
  • Areas of high metabolic activity (eg liver cells) have lots of them
  • Self-replicating

A Level Biology - OCR A

Define the terms magnification and resolution.

  • The number of times greater than an image is than the actual object.


  • The ability to distinguish between two objects that are close together. Higher resolution means greater detail. 

A Level Biology - OCR A

Laser scanning/confocal microscope

  • Advantages
  • Uses
  • Specimens can be whole and living
  • Depth selectivity
  • High resolution, high contrast


Therefore it is useful in the medical sector for easier diagnosis and quicker treatment, such as with corneal fungal filaments. 


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