Psychologie at University Of British Columbia | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Psychologie an der University of British Columbia

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Explain the distinction between dualism and materialism.

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Dualism: mind and body are fundamentally different, Rene Descartes

Materialism: the entire world is physical / made of material, mind and body are the same; Thomas Hobbes; favored by modern psych

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experiment
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the research strategy that tests behavioral effects of one or more variables (by manipulating an independent variable and measuring the effect on some dependent variable)


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In what term do you need determine significant differences?

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dependent variable

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Define neuroscience and explain how modern psychologists study the brain


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cog neuroscience: study of reality between brain and mind (esp in humans)

behavioral neuroscience: study of relationship betwn brain & behavior (esp in non human)

P. Broca found broca area's regulates speech 

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Define both Type I and Type II errors in the context of psychological research


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Type I

  1. when researchers conclude there is a causal relationship when there ISN'T (false positive)

Type II

  1. when researches conclude there is NOT a causal relationship when there IS 

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reactive

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people tend to think, feel, and act differently when they are, or are not being observed

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What methods do we use to study human behavior?

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1. Methods of observation (what people do)

2. Methods of explanation (why people do it)

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Explain the distinction between realism and idealism.


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Realism: things are known / perceived independent of whether anyone is thinking or perceiving them; John Locke 'what you see is what you get'

Idealism: perception of physical world is the brain's interpretation of info from sensory organs; I. Kant 'what you see will be directly connected to info you already have abt it', favored by modern psych

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Define introspection and explain how it was used in structuralism


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structuralism: theory of consciousness that seeks to analyze the elements of mental experiences; ex. sensations, mental image, feelings and how they combine to form complex experiences; E. Titchener

Introspection: analysis of one's own thoughts and emotions

- used introspection to discover the basic building blocks of subjective experience


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Give an example of the principle of reinforcement

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Principle of Reinforcement:

- BF Skinner

- principle stating that any behavior that is rewarded will be repeated and any behavior that isn't won't

Examples:

- classical conditioning: pavlov, stimuli-response

operant conditioning: BF Skinner, 'skinner box' change the behavior to get the reward (behaviour-reward/punish-change behavior-reward)

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scientific method

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​organized decision-making process when doing research


researcher turns "interesting observation" into a systematic program of research

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control condition
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the "treatment-absent" condition in an experiment (used as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment)


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Q:

Explain the distinction between dualism and materialism.

A:

Dualism: mind and body are fundamentally different, Rene Descartes

Materialism: the entire world is physical / made of material, mind and body are the same; Thomas Hobbes; favored by modern psych

Q:


experiment
A:

the research strategy that tests behavioral effects of one or more variables (by manipulating an independent variable and measuring the effect on some dependent variable)


Q:

In what term do you need determine significant differences?

A:

dependent variable

Q:

Define neuroscience and explain how modern psychologists study the brain


A:

cog neuroscience: study of reality between brain and mind (esp in humans)

behavioral neuroscience: study of relationship betwn brain & behavior (esp in non human)

P. Broca found broca area's regulates speech 

Q:

Define both Type I and Type II errors in the context of psychological research


A:

Type I

  1. when researchers conclude there is a causal relationship when there ISN'T (false positive)

Type II

  1. when researches conclude there is NOT a causal relationship when there IS 

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

reactive

A:

people tend to think, feel, and act differently when they are, or are not being observed

Q:

What methods do we use to study human behavior?

A:

1. Methods of observation (what people do)

2. Methods of explanation (why people do it)

Q:

Explain the distinction between realism and idealism.


A:

Realism: things are known / perceived independent of whether anyone is thinking or perceiving them; John Locke 'what you see is what you get'

Idealism: perception of physical world is the brain's interpretation of info from sensory organs; I. Kant 'what you see will be directly connected to info you already have abt it', favored by modern psych

Q:

Define introspection and explain how it was used in structuralism


A:

structuralism: theory of consciousness that seeks to analyze the elements of mental experiences; ex. sensations, mental image, feelings and how they combine to form complex experiences; E. Titchener

Introspection: analysis of one's own thoughts and emotions

- used introspection to discover the basic building blocks of subjective experience


Q:

Give an example of the principle of reinforcement

A:

Principle of Reinforcement:

- BF Skinner

- principle stating that any behavior that is rewarded will be repeated and any behavior that isn't won't

Examples:

- classical conditioning: pavlov, stimuli-response

operant conditioning: BF Skinner, 'skinner box' change the behavior to get the reward (behaviour-reward/punish-change behavior-reward)

Q:

scientific method

A:

​organized decision-making process when doing research


researcher turns "interesting observation" into a systematic program of research

Q:


control condition
A:

the "treatment-absent" condition in an experiment (used as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment)


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