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Lernmaterialien für Physiology an der University of Brighton

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

List five physiological functions of ions


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

1. Activates enzymes

2. Controls transmembrane voltage

3. Creates energy

4. Moves water

5. Forms bone 

+ acts as a second messenger

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Name three molecules in the body that are neither anions nor cations.


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

H2O, CO2, O2, cholesterol & testosterone


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How are calcium ions stored in the body? How accessible are the different calcium stores?


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Free in solution (immediately accessible). 

Bound to proteins (readily accessible). 

Sequestered in organelles (accessible only upon triggering an ion transporter). 

Bound in an insoluble complex (e.g in bone, mostly inaccessible)


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Which is the biggest fluid compartment in volume?


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Intracellular fluid

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Superficially describe the fluid content (particularly the ions) surrounding the cells.


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Extracellular fluid: water, with electrolytes in it (Na+ and Cl-) It is pH = 7.4
ECF has much less protein than intracellular space or than the plasma, so it has more Cl- and less protein than those other fluid compartments

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Compare the fluid content (particularly the ions) inside the cells to the fluid surrounding the cells.


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Inside: main cation is K+; the main anion is protein and Cl-
Extracellular: main cation is Na+; the main anion is Cl-

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Compare and contrast diffusion and osmosis.


Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Diffusion is the passive movement of solutes down their concentration gradient.
Osmosis is the passive movement of water down its concentration gradient.
Osmosis can lead to an increase in osmotic pressure.
Osmosis can happen across membranes that do not allow for movement of charged particles

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Name five ways that ions can cross the membrane.


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Ion channel. Pump. Co-transporter. Antiporter (exchanger). Leak


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Name three signs or symptoms of hypocalcaemia.


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Paraesthesias, convulsions, arrhythmias, over-reactive tendon reflexes (Chvostek's, Trousseau's), seizures


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Name three excitable cells and three non-excitable cells.


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Excitable: neurons, skeletal muscle cells, smooth muscle cells, cardiac myocytes,Non-excitable: epithelial cells and connective tissue; e.g. liver cells (hepatocytes), red blood cells, kidney tubule cells, GI epithelial cells (e.g. gastric parietal cells), keratinocytes (skin epithelium)


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the main causes of ionic imbalances in patients?


Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Trauma, haemorrhage, diarrhoea, vomiting, hormonal imbalances, diabetes, diuretics, kidney dysfunction, dehydration, poisons


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Name 5 symptoms (or signs) that a physician might detect due to ionic concentrations being unbalanced.


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Cardiac arrhythmias.
Tics and nervous dysfunctions
Seizures
Bone deformities
Oedema

Lösung ausblenden
  • 4164 Karteikarten
  • 122 Studierende
  • 1 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Physiology Kurs an der University of Brighton - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

List five physiological functions of ions


A:

1. Activates enzymes

2. Controls transmembrane voltage

3. Creates energy

4. Moves water

5. Forms bone 

+ acts as a second messenger

Q:

Name three molecules in the body that are neither anions nor cations.


A:

H2O, CO2, O2, cholesterol & testosterone


Q:

How are calcium ions stored in the body? How accessible are the different calcium stores?


A:

Free in solution (immediately accessible). 

Bound to proteins (readily accessible). 

Sequestered in organelles (accessible only upon triggering an ion transporter). 

Bound in an insoluble complex (e.g in bone, mostly inaccessible)


Q:

Which is the biggest fluid compartment in volume?


A:

Intracellular fluid

Q:

Superficially describe the fluid content (particularly the ions) surrounding the cells.


A:

Extracellular fluid: water, with electrolytes in it (Na+ and Cl-) It is pH = 7.4
ECF has much less protein than intracellular space or than the plasma, so it has more Cl- and less protein than those other fluid compartments

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Compare the fluid content (particularly the ions) inside the cells to the fluid surrounding the cells.


A:

Inside: main cation is K+; the main anion is protein and Cl-
Extracellular: main cation is Na+; the main anion is Cl-

Q:

Compare and contrast diffusion and osmosis.


A:

Diffusion is the passive movement of solutes down their concentration gradient.
Osmosis is the passive movement of water down its concentration gradient.
Osmosis can lead to an increase in osmotic pressure.
Osmosis can happen across membranes that do not allow for movement of charged particles

Q:

Name five ways that ions can cross the membrane.


A:

Ion channel. Pump. Co-transporter. Antiporter (exchanger). Leak


Q:

Name three signs or symptoms of hypocalcaemia.


A:

Paraesthesias, convulsions, arrhythmias, over-reactive tendon reflexes (Chvostek's, Trousseau's), seizures


Q:

Name three excitable cells and three non-excitable cells.


A:

Excitable: neurons, skeletal muscle cells, smooth muscle cells, cardiac myocytes,Non-excitable: epithelial cells and connective tissue; e.g. liver cells (hepatocytes), red blood cells, kidney tubule cells, GI epithelial cells (e.g. gastric parietal cells), keratinocytes (skin epithelium)


Q:

What are the main causes of ionic imbalances in patients?


A:

Trauma, haemorrhage, diarrhoea, vomiting, hormonal imbalances, diabetes, diuretics, kidney dysfunction, dehydration, poisons


Q:

Name 5 symptoms (or signs) that a physician might detect due to ionic concentrations being unbalanced.


A:

Cardiac arrhythmias.
Tics and nervous dysfunctions
Seizures
Bone deformities
Oedema

Physiology

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