Immunity at University Of Brighton | Flashcards & Summaries

Select your language

Suggested languages for you:
Log In Start studying!

Lernmaterialien für Immunity an der University of Brighton

Greife auf kostenlose Karteikarten, Zusammenfassungen, Übungsaufgaben und Altklausuren für deinen Immunity Kurs an der University of Brighton zu.

TESTE DEIN WISSEN

what also happens when THelper cells are activated

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

the cloned daughter cells differentiate

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Non-specific immune response
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
The process is called phagocytosis – No Mark
1. Pathogen is engulfed by the phagocyte.
2. Engulfed pathogen enters the cytoplasm of
     the phagocyte in a vesicle;
3.  Lysosomes fuse with vesicle releasing
     digestive enzymes;
4.  Lysosome enzymes break down the pathogen.
5.  Waste materials are ejected from the cell by exocytosis;


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How do antibodies assist in the destruction of pathogens?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

1) AGGLUTINATION: Specific antibodies bind to the antigens on pathogen and clump them together.

2) OPSONISATION: marking pathogens so phagocytes recognise and destroy the pathogen more efficiently.

3) LYSIS: Bind to antigens and lead to destruction of the pathogens membrane.

4) ANTI-TOXIN & ANTI-VENOM: Bind to toxins or venom (both usually proteins) to prevent these molecules from binding to their complementary target receptors.

5) Prevent pathogen replication

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How HIV causes the symptoms of AIDS.
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
•    HIV infects and destroys T helper cells
•    Reduction in number of T helper cells reduces the immune response (Humoral/cellular)
leaves people vulnerable to secondary diseases


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Difference between active and passive immunity.
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Active involves memory cells, passive does not;
2. Active involves production of antibody by plasma cells/memory cells;
3. Passive involves antibody introduced into body from outside/named source;
4. Active long term, because antibody produced in response to antigen;
5. Passive short term, because antibody (given) is broken down;
6. Active (can) take time to develop/work, passive fast acting;


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Explain how the humeral response leads to immunity.
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1.    B cells specific to the antigen reproduce by mitosis.
2.    B cells produce plasma and memory cells
Second infection produces antibodies in larger quantities AND quicker.


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Structure of the human immunodeficiency virus.
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. RNA (as genetic material);
2. Reverse transcriptase;
3. (Protein) capsid;
4. (Phospho)lipid (viral) envelope
OR
Envelope made of membrane;
5. Attachment proteins;


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

what are antigen presenting cells

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

any cell that presents a non self antigen on their surface

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
When a pathogen causes an infection, plasma cells secrete antibodies which destroy this pathogen.
Explain why these antibodies are only effective against a specific pathogen.  
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
 1. Antigens (on pathogen) are a specific shape/ have specific tertiary / 3D structure;
2. Antibody fits/binds / is complementary to antigen/ antibody-antigen complex forms;
OR
3. Antibodies are a specific shape / have specific tertiary/ 3D structure;
4. Antigens (on pathogen) fit/ bind/ are complementary to antibody / antibody-antigen complex forms;


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

what is NON-SPECIFIC IMMUNITY

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

the process of phagocytosis.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

what happens when antigens are not recognized

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

the body will treat that cell/pathogen as non-self and initiate an immune response which will lead to the destruction of the cell / pathogen / protein.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How do vaccines work?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Vaccine contains antigen from pathogen;
2. Macrophage presents antigen on its surface;
3. T (helper) cell with complementary receptor protein binds to antigen;
4. T cell stimulates B cell;
5. (With) complementary antibody on its surface;
6. B cell divides to form clone secreting / producing same antibody;
7. B cell secretes large amounts of antibody;


Lösung ausblenden
  • 12908 Karteikarten
  • 175 Studierende
  • 2 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Immunity Kurs an der University of Brighton - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

what also happens when THelper cells are activated

A:

the cloned daughter cells differentiate

Q:
Non-specific immune response
A:
The process is called phagocytosis – No Mark
1. Pathogen is engulfed by the phagocyte.
2. Engulfed pathogen enters the cytoplasm of
     the phagocyte in a vesicle;
3.  Lysosomes fuse with vesicle releasing
     digestive enzymes;
4.  Lysosome enzymes break down the pathogen.
5.  Waste materials are ejected from the cell by exocytosis;


Q:

How do antibodies assist in the destruction of pathogens?

A:

1) AGGLUTINATION: Specific antibodies bind to the antigens on pathogen and clump them together.

2) OPSONISATION: marking pathogens so phagocytes recognise and destroy the pathogen more efficiently.

3) LYSIS: Bind to antigens and lead to destruction of the pathogens membrane.

4) ANTI-TOXIN & ANTI-VENOM: Bind to toxins or venom (both usually proteins) to prevent these molecules from binding to their complementary target receptors.

5) Prevent pathogen replication

Q:
How HIV causes the symptoms of AIDS.
A:
•    HIV infects and destroys T helper cells
•    Reduction in number of T helper cells reduces the immune response (Humoral/cellular)
leaves people vulnerable to secondary diseases


Q:
Difference between active and passive immunity.
A:
1. Active involves memory cells, passive does not;
2. Active involves production of antibody by plasma cells/memory cells;
3. Passive involves antibody introduced into body from outside/named source;
4. Active long term, because antibody produced in response to antigen;
5. Passive short term, because antibody (given) is broken down;
6. Active (can) take time to develop/work, passive fast acting;


Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Explain how the humeral response leads to immunity.
A:
1.    B cells specific to the antigen reproduce by mitosis.
2.    B cells produce plasma and memory cells
Second infection produces antibodies in larger quantities AND quicker.


Q:
Structure of the human immunodeficiency virus.
A:
1. RNA (as genetic material);
2. Reverse transcriptase;
3. (Protein) capsid;
4. (Phospho)lipid (viral) envelope
OR
Envelope made of membrane;
5. Attachment proteins;


Q:

what are antigen presenting cells

A:

any cell that presents a non self antigen on their surface

Q:
When a pathogen causes an infection, plasma cells secrete antibodies which destroy this pathogen.
Explain why these antibodies are only effective against a specific pathogen.  
A:
 1. Antigens (on pathogen) are a specific shape/ have specific tertiary / 3D structure;
2. Antibody fits/binds / is complementary to antigen/ antibody-antigen complex forms;
OR
3. Antibodies are a specific shape / have specific tertiary/ 3D structure;
4. Antigens (on pathogen) fit/ bind/ are complementary to antibody / antibody-antigen complex forms;


Q:

what is NON-SPECIFIC IMMUNITY

A:

the process of phagocytosis.

Q:

what happens when antigens are not recognized

A:

the body will treat that cell/pathogen as non-self and initiate an immune response which will lead to the destruction of the cell / pathogen / protein.

Q:
How do vaccines work?
A:
1. Vaccine contains antigen from pathogen;
2. Macrophage presents antigen on its surface;
3. T (helper) cell with complementary receptor protein binds to antigen;
4. T cell stimulates B cell;
5. (With) complementary antibody on its surface;
6. B cell divides to form clone secreting / producing same antibody;
7. B cell secretes large amounts of antibody;


Immunity

Erstelle und finde Lernmaterialien auf StudySmarter.

Greife kostenlos auf tausende geteilte Karteikarten, Zusammenfassungen, Altklausuren und mehr zu.

Jetzt loslegen

Das sind die beliebtesten Immunity Kurse im gesamten StudySmarter Universum

Immunity,Infection

University of Bradford

Zum Kurs
adaptive immunity

University of KwaZulu-Natal

Zum Kurs
Adaptive Immunity

Fachhochschulstudiengänge Krems IMC

Zum Kurs
Immunity

University of Witwatersrand

Zum Kurs

Die all-in-one Lernapp für Studierende

Greife auf Millionen geteilter Lernmaterialien der StudySmarter Community zu
Kostenlos anmelden Immunity
Erstelle Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen mit den StudySmarter Tools
Kostenlos loslegen Immunity