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Why do we study cell cycle control?
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- Opportunity for therapeutic intervention (e.g. by using stem cells to grow new cells to replace damaged tissue/ correction/ research)
- Stem cells & differentiation (e.g. for cell deficiency therapy) 


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How to study cell cycle?

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3 ways
Yeast: (in whole organism)
- Fission Yeast 
- Budding Yeast

Xenopus oocytes (cell-free extract)

Mammalian cells (cell culture)
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Why do we use yeast?
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Small genome size,
Fast reproduction,
Can make mutants (temperature sensitive),
Easy to manipulate (amendable to genetic manipulation).

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Where are the events of cell cycle are tightly controlled?
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                                   In 2 places 
1) At the point of entry into cell cycle when growth factors are available (=late G1 aka the restriction point)….but if there is no growth factor it enters quiescence stage (=G0) aka quiet/no div

2) At several critical checkpoints (this actions is exerted through enzyme cyclin dependent kinase cdks)
simple —> Cdks is the main controller that does the checking at the checkpoint) 


(for better understanding oo!) Cdks role? is simply to ensure that every part of the cell is in order before moving to the next stage :).
Phosphorylate to add negative charge. 
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What is the function of cell cycle checkpoint?
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 Ensures the genomes transmitted to daughter cells are complete…so that nothing goes missing.
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What is the MOA of Cdks?
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from Google:
Specifically, CDKs phosphorylate their substrates by transferring phosphate groups from ATP to specific stretches of amino acids in the substrates. A lone Cdk is inactive, but the binding of a cyclin activates it, making it a functional enzyme and allowing it to modify target proteins.
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How is DNA damage checkpoints controlled?
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….


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what does sensor mechanism monitor?
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It monitors state of kinetichore
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What transcription factor mediates G1 checkpoint?
(+when?)
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p53
(When there is a DNA damage/ as a response to it ☺️)
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What is the function of p53?
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It suppresses tumour growth through gene regulation 
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Breast Cancer Risk factors
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Age (>60)
Lifestyle (+weight, EtOH)
Oestrogen exposure
Family History (mutated BRCA gene)


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What is a cell cycle and what what are the phases?
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Q:
Why do we study cell cycle control?
A:
- Opportunity for therapeutic intervention (e.g. by using stem cells to grow new cells to replace damaged tissue/ correction/ research)
- Stem cells & differentiation (e.g. for cell deficiency therapy) 


Q:
How to study cell cycle?

A:
3 ways
Yeast: (in whole organism)
- Fission Yeast 
- Budding Yeast

Xenopus oocytes (cell-free extract)

Mammalian cells (cell culture)
Q:
Why do we use yeast?
A:
Small genome size,
Fast reproduction,
Can make mutants (temperature sensitive),
Easy to manipulate (amendable to genetic manipulation).

Q:
Where are the events of cell cycle are tightly controlled?
A:
                                   In 2 places 
1) At the point of entry into cell cycle when growth factors are available (=late G1 aka the restriction point)….but if there is no growth factor it enters quiescence stage (=G0) aka quiet/no div

2) At several critical checkpoints (this actions is exerted through enzyme cyclin dependent kinase cdks)
simple —> Cdks is the main controller that does the checking at the checkpoint) 


(for better understanding oo!) Cdks role? is simply to ensure that every part of the cell is in order before moving to the next stage :).
Phosphorylate to add negative charge. 
Q:
What is the function of cell cycle checkpoint?
A:
 Ensures the genomes transmitted to daughter cells are complete…so that nothing goes missing.
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
What is the MOA of Cdks?
A:
from Google:
Specifically, CDKs phosphorylate their substrates by transferring phosphate groups from ATP to specific stretches of amino acids in the substrates. A lone Cdk is inactive, but the binding of a cyclin activates it, making it a functional enzyme and allowing it to modify target proteins.
Q:
How is DNA damage checkpoints controlled?
A:

….


Q:
what does sensor mechanism monitor?
A:
It monitors state of kinetichore
Q:
What transcription factor mediates G1 checkpoint?
(+when?)
A:
p53
(When there is a DNA damage/ as a response to it ☺️)
Q:
What is the function of p53?
A:
It suppresses tumour growth through gene regulation 
Q:
Breast Cancer Risk factors
A:
Age (>60)
Lifestyle (+weight, EtOH)
Oestrogen exposure
Family History (mutated BRCA gene)


Q:
What is a cell cycle and what what are the phases?
A:

Breast Cancer

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