Innate Immune Responses at University Of Bradford | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Innate immune responses an der University of Bradford

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the inflammation response - 2nd line of defence mechanism?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Injury or infection occurs
Mast cells and macrophages get involved
Capillaries dilate and Leakiness happens
Proteins and cells enter injury site
Heat, redness, swelling and pain occurs
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Identify different soluble proteins and explain their functions?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Lysozyme → breaks down bacterial cell
Defensins → small antimicrotial peptides produced by neutrophils help in killing phagocytes bacteria
Surfactants → lubricate lungs and fuse with the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane to form a mixed micelle that changes the tertiary structure and conformation of the cell membrane
To prevent infection by blocking molecules 
promote phagocytosis by acting as opsonins ( an antibody that binds to foreign microorganism to make them more susceptible to phagocytosis)
Mannose-binding lectin → acts as an opsonin to pathogens
C-reactive protein → acts as an opsonin to pathogen
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is targeted cell lysis inflated host cell?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Unusual molecules presented on cel surface of infected cells are recognised by natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells
Then undergo lysis where cell is destroyed by rupture of the cell wall
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is phagocytosis?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells have receptors that recognise pathogen
Engulf a pathogen
Degrade the pathogen
Display the pathogen fragments on the cell surface membrane
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What happens when  the complement system is activated?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Opsonisation of bacteria occurs 
Inflammation occurs where chemo-tractants are released for neutrophils and monocytes bind to
Chemocractants are small soluble molecules that bind to receptors on leukocytes
Bacteria undergoes lysis by punching holes in the bacterial membrane
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the 3 functions of the complement system?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1.Protein C3b coats microbes for phagocytes to attack
2.C5a and c3 a protein fragments are chemo-attractants that recruit neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages
3.Form a membrane attack complex to punch holes in bacterial membrane
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the physiological barriers??
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
pH restricts microbe growth
Temperature rise from fever can resist microbe growth
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What does a cytokine do? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Bind to specific receptors on the membrane of target cells
Trigger signal transduction pathway
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the 5 cells of innate immunology and their function?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Dendritic cells → antigen presentation, costimulatory signals,reactive to oxygen and nitrogen species,  interferon, cytokines
Macrophages→ derived from monocytes, tissue resident, involved in phagocytosis, inflammatory mediators,antigen presentation,reactive to oxygen and nitrogen species, cytokines and complement proteins
Neutrophils → phagocytosis ,reactive to oxygen and nitrogen species, presents anti microbial peptides
Natural killer cells → lysis of viral- infected cells, interferon, macrophage activation
Mast cells → release inflammation mediator
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are  acute phase response proteins and provide examples of them?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase or decrease
As a response to inflammation
E.g. C3 , Factor D and properdin, mannose-binding lectin binds to mannose residues on the surface of bacteria, fungi and some viruses
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What occurs during inflammation?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Complement proteins communicate with each other
Triggers a cascade of proteolytic enzymes
To promote lysis of pathogen cell membrane
Recruits more innate and later adaptive leukocytes to site of injury
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How do the mucous membranes function as anatomical and physiological barriers?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Thick mucous layers which traps pathogen
Cilia that have peristaltic movements to propel pathogens from the body
Provide a surface for normal microbial flora to compete  with pathogens
Lösung ausblenden
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Q:
What is the inflammation response - 2nd line of defence mechanism?
A:
Injury or infection occurs
Mast cells and macrophages get involved
Capillaries dilate and Leakiness happens
Proteins and cells enter injury site
Heat, redness, swelling and pain occurs
Q:
Identify different soluble proteins and explain their functions?
A:
Lysozyme → breaks down bacterial cell
Defensins → small antimicrotial peptides produced by neutrophils help in killing phagocytes bacteria
Surfactants → lubricate lungs and fuse with the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane to form a mixed micelle that changes the tertiary structure and conformation of the cell membrane
To prevent infection by blocking molecules 
promote phagocytosis by acting as opsonins ( an antibody that binds to foreign microorganism to make them more susceptible to phagocytosis)
Mannose-binding lectin → acts as an opsonin to pathogens
C-reactive protein → acts as an opsonin to pathogen
Q:
What is targeted cell lysis inflated host cell?
A:
Unusual molecules presented on cel surface of infected cells are recognised by natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells
Then undergo lysis where cell is destroyed by rupture of the cell wall
Q:
What is phagocytosis?
A:
Neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells have receptors that recognise pathogen
Engulf a pathogen
Degrade the pathogen
Display the pathogen fragments on the cell surface membrane
Q:
What happens when  the complement system is activated?
A:
Opsonisation of bacteria occurs 
Inflammation occurs where chemo-tractants are released for neutrophils and monocytes bind to
Chemocractants are small soluble molecules that bind to receptors on leukocytes
Bacteria undergoes lysis by punching holes in the bacterial membrane
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
What are the 3 functions of the complement system?
A:
1.Protein C3b coats microbes for phagocytes to attack
2.C5a and c3 a protein fragments are chemo-attractants that recruit neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages
3.Form a membrane attack complex to punch holes in bacterial membrane
Q:
What are the physiological barriers??
A:
pH restricts microbe growth
Temperature rise from fever can resist microbe growth
Q:
What does a cytokine do? 
A:
Bind to specific receptors on the membrane of target cells
Trigger signal transduction pathway
Q:
What are the 5 cells of innate immunology and their function?
A:
Dendritic cells → antigen presentation, costimulatory signals,reactive to oxygen and nitrogen species,  interferon, cytokines
Macrophages→ derived from monocytes, tissue resident, involved in phagocytosis, inflammatory mediators,antigen presentation,reactive to oxygen and nitrogen species, cytokines and complement proteins
Neutrophils → phagocytosis ,reactive to oxygen and nitrogen species, presents anti microbial peptides
Natural killer cells → lysis of viral- infected cells, interferon, macrophage activation
Mast cells → release inflammation mediator
Q:
What are  acute phase response proteins and provide examples of them?
A:
Class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase or decrease
As a response to inflammation
E.g. C3 , Factor D and properdin, mannose-binding lectin binds to mannose residues on the surface of bacteria, fungi and some viruses
Q:
What occurs during inflammation?
A:
Complement proteins communicate with each other
Triggers a cascade of proteolytic enzymes
To promote lysis of pathogen cell membrane
Recruits more innate and later adaptive leukocytes to site of injury
Q:
How do the mucous membranes function as anatomical and physiological barriers?
A:
Thick mucous layers which traps pathogen
Cilia that have peristaltic movements to propel pathogens from the body
Provide a surface for normal microbial flora to compete  with pathogens
Innate immune responses

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