Endocrine Pancreas And Diabetes Mellitus at University Of Bradford | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Endocrine Pancreas and diabetes mellitus an der University of Bradford

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the complications associated with diabetes mellitus?
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Acute: ketoacidosis for type 1
Non-ketotic hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state for type 2
Hypoglycaemia
Long term: microvascular which affects small  blood vessels
Such as retinopathy which is damage to retina
Neuropathy which is nerve damage
Nephropathy which is kidney damage
Macrovascular: which affects large blood vessels
Such as heart attack
Stroke
Decreased blood circulation leading to gangrene


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How can healthy eating be implemented with diabetes?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Whole food meals
Regular meals with starchy food
High fibre food like beans, peas, lentils
Reduce fatty and fried food like butter, margarine, fatty meat and cheese
Reduce sugar amount
Reduce to a stable weight
Reduce salt
Reduce alcohol
Reduce food with sorbitol and fructose as sugar
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the actions of insulin in reaction to high levels of glucose?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Glucose is absorbed in the blood
Pancreas secretes insulin
Insulin stimulates the uptake of glucose from the blood into the liver
Insulin will stimulate the conversion of glucose to glycogen
Insulin will stimulate the conversion of glucose to pyruvate and then to acetyl COA by glycolysis
Insulin will stimulate acetyl COA to triacylglycerols
Triacylglycerds are packaged into very low density lipo proteins
Very low density lip proteins are stored as adipose tissue
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is polydipsia and polyuria? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Polydipsia → raised blood glucose  
Glucose is found in urine and loss of water with glucose levels  

Polyuria is excess glucose in the urine and loss of water leads to increased urine output
Leads to dehydration and increased serum osmolality
Extreme thirst
 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the common signs and symptoms of hypoglycaemia?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Blood glucose is less than 4 mmol/l
Occurs in patients who are insulin treated diabetics and insulin secretagogue such as sulphonylureas
Autonomic signs and symptoms → anxiety, tremor, palpitations, sweating Neuroglycopenic signs and symptoms → dizziness, blurred vision, headache tiredness, inability to concentrate, hunger, shivering
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Why is patient education important in managing diabetes?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
It is crucial for patients to understand the condition they are suffering from so you can alongside them
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the endogenous factors stimulating insulin secretion?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Intestinal nutrients
Incretins such as GIP and GLP-1  
Gastrointestinal hormone
Parasympathetic stimulation
Glucose, amino acids, fatty acids and ketones in the blood
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What do delta cell release?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Somatostatin
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What does GLP-1 mean?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Glucagon like peptide 1
it is an incretin so it promotes the release of insulin by the beta cells in the pancreas 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the 2 main classifications of diabetes mellitus?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Type 1 which is insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
Type 2 which is non-insulin dependant diabetes mellitus
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is insulin?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Hormones that lowers blood glucose levels when the level is high
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How can alcohol cause hypoglycaemia?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Alcohol usage increases insulin secretion
Leads to low blood sugar levels
Lösung ausblenden
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Q:
What are the complications associated with diabetes mellitus?
A:
Acute: ketoacidosis for type 1
Non-ketotic hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state for type 2
Hypoglycaemia
Long term: microvascular which affects small  blood vessels
Such as retinopathy which is damage to retina
Neuropathy which is nerve damage
Nephropathy which is kidney damage
Macrovascular: which affects large blood vessels
Such as heart attack
Stroke
Decreased blood circulation leading to gangrene


Q:
How can healthy eating be implemented with diabetes?
A:
Whole food meals
Regular meals with starchy food
High fibre food like beans, peas, lentils
Reduce fatty and fried food like butter, margarine, fatty meat and cheese
Reduce sugar amount
Reduce to a stable weight
Reduce salt
Reduce alcohol
Reduce food with sorbitol and fructose as sugar
Q:
What are the actions of insulin in reaction to high levels of glucose?
A:
Glucose is absorbed in the blood
Pancreas secretes insulin
Insulin stimulates the uptake of glucose from the blood into the liver
Insulin will stimulate the conversion of glucose to glycogen
Insulin will stimulate the conversion of glucose to pyruvate and then to acetyl COA by glycolysis
Insulin will stimulate acetyl COA to triacylglycerols
Triacylglycerds are packaged into very low density lipo proteins
Very low density lip proteins are stored as adipose tissue
Q:
What is polydipsia and polyuria? 
A:
Polydipsia → raised blood glucose  
Glucose is found in urine and loss of water with glucose levels  

Polyuria is excess glucose in the urine and loss of water leads to increased urine output
Leads to dehydration and increased serum osmolality
Extreme thirst
 
Q:
What are the common signs and symptoms of hypoglycaemia?
A:
Blood glucose is less than 4 mmol/l
Occurs in patients who are insulin treated diabetics and insulin secretagogue such as sulphonylureas
Autonomic signs and symptoms → anxiety, tremor, palpitations, sweating Neuroglycopenic signs and symptoms → dizziness, blurred vision, headache tiredness, inability to concentrate, hunger, shivering
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Why is patient education important in managing diabetes?
A:
It is crucial for patients to understand the condition they are suffering from so you can alongside them
Q:
What are the endogenous factors stimulating insulin secretion?
A:
Intestinal nutrients
Incretins such as GIP and GLP-1  
Gastrointestinal hormone
Parasympathetic stimulation
Glucose, amino acids, fatty acids and ketones in the blood
Q:
What do delta cell release?
A:
Somatostatin
Q:
What does GLP-1 mean?
A:
Glucagon like peptide 1
it is an incretin so it promotes the release of insulin by the beta cells in the pancreas 
Q:
What are the 2 main classifications of diabetes mellitus?
A:
Type 1 which is insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
Type 2 which is non-insulin dependant diabetes mellitus
Q:
What is insulin?
A:
Hormones that lowers blood glucose levels when the level is high
Q:
How can alcohol cause hypoglycaemia?
A:
Alcohol usage increases insulin secretion
Leads to low blood sugar levels
Endocrine Pancreas and diabetes mellitus

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