Clinical Immunology at University Of Bradford | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Clinical Immunology an der University of Bradford

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the immunology techniques used in clinical laboratories ?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Immunodiffusion → radial and double immunodiffusion
Agglutination
Immunoelectrophoresis
Immunoassays 
Immunoturbiditmetry
Nephlolometry
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the process of radial immunodiffusion?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Antigens and antibodies diffuse in agar gels from wells
Antibody and antigen interact by binding and precipitate
Reaction can occur within 4-72 hours
Appears in small volumes
Diagnosis for disfibrinogenaemia and brucellosis
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What occurs in double immuno diffusion?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Many wells are filled up with antigen and antibody mixture
Antigens and antibodies diffuse through agar gel from wells
Precipitation occurs in lines
Diagnosis for funded infections, viral infection, role in forensics
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the 2 types of agglutination techniques?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Latex agglutination: many antibodies are bound to latex beads to increase the number of antigen-binding sites
Hemagglutination: red cells clump together to form aggregates ,Caused by surface of red cells being coated with antibodies
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is electrophoresis?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Uses an electric field to separate molecules in patient serum based on their electric charge
- use agarose or polyacrylamide gels 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is capillary zone electrophoresis?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Separates proteins, peptides and nucleic acids in a liquid buffer flowing through  small capillary tubes
Highly automated technique
Sample is introduced into the capillary via capillary action
Electric field is applied
Proteins are detected by absorbance or uv light
Can lead to decreased albumin and a peak in the gamma region
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is immunoelectropheresis ?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Biochemical Technique to separate proteins via either immundiffusion or electrophoresis
Identifies the presence and determines the isotype of an immunoglobin
Being replaced by immunofixation
Diagnosis for waldenstroms macroglobulinaemia, lg isotypes, myeloma and allergy testing
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is process of immunofixation?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Fixes proteins into place with antibodies
Identifies immunoglobin in serum and urine
Washes away the other immunoglobulins before staining
Proteins form a pattern of bands on the computer
Pattern bands are specific to certain diseases
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is multiple myeloma?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Accumulation  of cancerous single clone of plasma cells in the bone marrow 
Producing IgA, IgG and rarely lgD, IgE or IgM antibodies
Distinguished by lytic bone lesions → spots of bone damage 
More prevalent in black perorations than white
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is isoelectric focussing?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
High resolution technique
Proteins are separated based on their isoelectric points within a continuous ph scale 
Isoelectric point is the ph of a solution at which the net charge of a protein becomes 0
Isoelectric point is stabilised for a protein so it can be used to identify proteins
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are immuno assays?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Use of antigen-antibodies to detect concentrations of target molecules in a serum
Target molecules such as hormones, auto antibodies, turnour markers, allergens
Need to attach a detectable label
Used across many pathology departments
Produces highly accurate and reproducible assays
Commercially produced monoclonal antibodies
There are manual and automated assays
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are immunology laboratories?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
 Teaching hospitals → specialist immunology laboratories, higher number of tests available
District general hospital → less specialised testing, linked to haemotology and biochemistry
Allow depth and breadth of tests in areas that are quickly evolving in research
Lösung ausblenden
  • 6642 Karteikarten
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  • 12 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Clinical Immunology Kurs an der University of Bradford - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:
What are the immunology techniques used in clinical laboratories ?
A:
Immunodiffusion → radial and double immunodiffusion
Agglutination
Immunoelectrophoresis
Immunoassays 
Immunoturbiditmetry
Nephlolometry
Q:
What is the process of radial immunodiffusion?
A:
Antigens and antibodies diffuse in agar gels from wells
Antibody and antigen interact by binding and precipitate
Reaction can occur within 4-72 hours
Appears in small volumes
Diagnosis for disfibrinogenaemia and brucellosis
Q:
What occurs in double immuno diffusion?
A:
Many wells are filled up with antigen and antibody mixture
Antigens and antibodies diffuse through agar gel from wells
Precipitation occurs in lines
Diagnosis for funded infections, viral infection, role in forensics
Q:
What are the 2 types of agglutination techniques?
A:
Latex agglutination: many antibodies are bound to latex beads to increase the number of antigen-binding sites
Hemagglutination: red cells clump together to form aggregates ,Caused by surface of red cells being coated with antibodies
Q:
What is electrophoresis?
A:
Uses an electric field to separate molecules in patient serum based on their electric charge
- use agarose or polyacrylamide gels 
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
What is capillary zone electrophoresis?
A:
Separates proteins, peptides and nucleic acids in a liquid buffer flowing through  small capillary tubes
Highly automated technique
Sample is introduced into the capillary via capillary action
Electric field is applied
Proteins are detected by absorbance or uv light
Can lead to decreased albumin and a peak in the gamma region
Q:
What is immunoelectropheresis ?
A:
Biochemical Technique to separate proteins via either immundiffusion or electrophoresis
Identifies the presence and determines the isotype of an immunoglobin
Being replaced by immunofixation
Diagnosis for waldenstroms macroglobulinaemia, lg isotypes, myeloma and allergy testing
Q:
What is process of immunofixation?
A:
Fixes proteins into place with antibodies
Identifies immunoglobin in serum and urine
Washes away the other immunoglobulins before staining
Proteins form a pattern of bands on the computer
Pattern bands are specific to certain diseases
Q:
What is multiple myeloma?
A:
Accumulation  of cancerous single clone of plasma cells in the bone marrow 
Producing IgA, IgG and rarely lgD, IgE or IgM antibodies
Distinguished by lytic bone lesions → spots of bone damage 
More prevalent in black perorations than white
Q:
What is isoelectric focussing?
A:
High resolution technique
Proteins are separated based on their isoelectric points within a continuous ph scale 
Isoelectric point is the ph of a solution at which the net charge of a protein becomes 0
Isoelectric point is stabilised for a protein so it can be used to identify proteins
Q:
What are immuno assays?
A:
Use of antigen-antibodies to detect concentrations of target molecules in a serum
Target molecules such as hormones, auto antibodies, turnour markers, allergens
Need to attach a detectable label
Used across many pathology departments
Produces highly accurate and reproducible assays
Commercially produced monoclonal antibodies
There are manual and automated assays
Q:
What are immunology laboratories?
A:
 Teaching hospitals → specialist immunology laboratories, higher number of tests available
District general hospital → less specialised testing, linked to haemotology and biochemistry
Allow depth and breadth of tests in areas that are quickly evolving in research
Clinical Immunology

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