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Lernmaterialien für Antibody an der University of Bradford

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What are the different types antibodies?
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Igm
Igd
Iga → IgA1 and 2
Igg → IgG1, 2,3,4
Ige
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What are the symptoms and causes of Hyper IgE syndrome (Job’s syndrome?
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High levels of Ige in the plasma whilst all other immunoglobulins levels are normal
Clinical symptoms are skin, respiratory tract and ear abscesses / blisters
Low antigen stimulation
Linked to defect in stat 3 gene on chromosome 4
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What is the Genetic aspect behind class switching?
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Parts of antibody heart chain locus are removed from chromosome
Double stranded DNA breaks at s regions (class switch regions)
Opposite from the gene segments that code for constant regions of heavy chains
DNA is broken by enzymes
Unwanted u and delta chains are removed
To substitute of y and E and Alpha constant region segment
Gene segments around deleted portion rejoin
Free ends of the DNA are re-joined by non- homologous ends joining
To KEEP a functional antibody gene
Produces antibodies of a different isotype
Lösung ausblenden
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What is multiple myeloma?
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Accumulation of Abnormal plasma cells in the bone marrow
release antibody called paraprotein into the blood and urine
Usually Igg is the abnormal antibody
0.5% of myeloma is caused by IgM
Affects spine, skull, pelvis, rib cage, long bones
Doesn't look like a lump or a tumour
Lösung ausblenden
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What is the process of class switching after an encounter with a foreign antigen?
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Igm is 1st antibody type to be produced
Naive B cells only have Igm bound to their cell surface
Mature B cells now have lgD and IgM bound to its cell surface as membrane receptors
Now mature B cell is ready to respond
Antibody interacts with antigen
 B cell get's activated
Causes cell to divide and differentiate into plasma cells
Plasma cells secretes antibodies
If antibodies come across specific signalling molecules they undergo class switching
Signalling molecules: cytokine release CD40, IL-4, cytokine receptors
Modulated by helper T cells
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Why do lgg antibodies cause major problems in transfusion practice?
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Many different blood group systems don't have natural occurring antibodies
Abnormal IgG antibodies are formed due to pregnancy or blood transfusion
Can cause haemolytic transfusion reactions → life threatening
HDNF → haemolytic disease of the newborn and foetus
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the differences between the subclasses in lgg antibody ?
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Slight changes in the amino acid sequence in the constant region of the heavy chains
This alters the hinge region
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How do IgM antibodies function?
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Appear early in a new infection
Block pathogens from binding to cells
 aggregate infectious agents to help remove them
Provides short term protection
Concentration increases for a few weeks and then drop as  IgG antibodies are produced
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is class switching?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Occurs in mature B cells
Response to antigen exposure
Changes B cell production of an antibody from One class  to another type
E.g  Igm to IgG
Constant region of heavy chain is changed
Variable region of heavy chain remains the same
Antigen affinity is not affected
Antibody can interact with different effector molecules
Enables different daughter cells from the same activated B cells to produce antibodies of different subtypes
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is IgA deficiency?
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Mostly asymptomatic
Some people are prone to chest infection ,pernicious anaemia and coeliac disease
Can cause  anaphylactic shock if exposed to IgA by transfusion
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are antibodies?
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Immunoglobins which are also glycoproteins
Found in all bodily fluids such as plasma, milk, tears, saliva, blood
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How is class switching involved in DNA recombination event?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Inter-chromosomal deletion and then recombination
Leads to exchange of gene segments coding for the constant region of the ig heavy chain
Ig heavy chain variable region is retained
Lösung ausblenden
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Q:
What are the different types antibodies?
A:
Igm
Igd
Iga → IgA1 and 2
Igg → IgG1, 2,3,4
Ige
Q:
What are the symptoms and causes of Hyper IgE syndrome (Job’s syndrome?
A:
High levels of Ige in the plasma whilst all other immunoglobulins levels are normal
Clinical symptoms are skin, respiratory tract and ear abscesses / blisters
Low antigen stimulation
Linked to defect in stat 3 gene on chromosome 4
Q:
What is the Genetic aspect behind class switching?
A:
Parts of antibody heart chain locus are removed from chromosome
Double stranded DNA breaks at s regions (class switch regions)
Opposite from the gene segments that code for constant regions of heavy chains
DNA is broken by enzymes
Unwanted u and delta chains are removed
To substitute of y and E and Alpha constant region segment
Gene segments around deleted portion rejoin
Free ends of the DNA are re-joined by non- homologous ends joining
To KEEP a functional antibody gene
Produces antibodies of a different isotype
Q:
What is multiple myeloma?
A:
Accumulation of Abnormal plasma cells in the bone marrow
release antibody called paraprotein into the blood and urine
Usually Igg is the abnormal antibody
0.5% of myeloma is caused by IgM
Affects spine, skull, pelvis, rib cage, long bones
Doesn't look like a lump or a tumour
Q:
What is the process of class switching after an encounter with a foreign antigen?
A:
Igm is 1st antibody type to be produced
Naive B cells only have Igm bound to their cell surface
Mature B cells now have lgD and IgM bound to its cell surface as membrane receptors
Now mature B cell is ready to respond
Antibody interacts with antigen
 B cell get's activated
Causes cell to divide and differentiate into plasma cells
Plasma cells secretes antibodies
If antibodies come across specific signalling molecules they undergo class switching
Signalling molecules: cytokine release CD40, IL-4, cytokine receptors
Modulated by helper T cells
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Why do lgg antibodies cause major problems in transfusion practice?
A:
Many different blood group systems don't have natural occurring antibodies
Abnormal IgG antibodies are formed due to pregnancy or blood transfusion
Can cause haemolytic transfusion reactions → life threatening
HDNF → haemolytic disease of the newborn and foetus
Q:
What are the differences between the subclasses in lgg antibody ?
A:
Slight changes in the amino acid sequence in the constant region of the heavy chains
This alters the hinge region
Q:
How do IgM antibodies function?
A:
Appear early in a new infection
Block pathogens from binding to cells
 aggregate infectious agents to help remove them
Provides short term protection
Concentration increases for a few weeks and then drop as  IgG antibodies are produced
Q:
What is class switching?
A:
Occurs in mature B cells
Response to antigen exposure
Changes B cell production of an antibody from One class  to another type
E.g  Igm to IgG
Constant region of heavy chain is changed
Variable region of heavy chain remains the same
Antigen affinity is not affected
Antibody can interact with different effector molecules
Enables different daughter cells from the same activated B cells to produce antibodies of different subtypes
Q:
What is IgA deficiency?
A:
Mostly asymptomatic
Some people are prone to chest infection ,pernicious anaemia and coeliac disease
Can cause  anaphylactic shock if exposed to IgA by transfusion
Q:
What are antibodies?
A:
Immunoglobins which are also glycoproteins
Found in all bodily fluids such as plasma, milk, tears, saliva, blood
Q:
How is class switching involved in DNA recombination event?
A:
Inter-chromosomal deletion and then recombination
Leads to exchange of gene segments coding for the constant region of the ig heavy chain
Ig heavy chain variable region is retained
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