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# Lernmaterialien für Planning & Optimization (HS21) an der University of Basel

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Why, when producing conflict-free flat operators, do we transform our operators by first making them conflict-free and then flat and not the other way round?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Because they are still conflict-free after we made them flat. But if we made them flat first and then conflict-free, they are not guaranteed to still be flat.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Why can't we find all invariants for a planning task?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

We can't solve the problem in polynomial time, because in order to find all invariants, we have to prove that the inverse of the invariants is unreachable.

Therefore, we use algorithms that only compute a subset of all useful invariants (sound, but not complete).

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What does domain-independent automated planning mean?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Separate the knowledge of problems (rules represented as input data) from strategy of how to solve problems (a generic solver engine)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is the difference between satisficing and optimal planning?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Satisficing planning returns any solution for a planning task PI, optimal planning returns a plan with minimal costs among all plans for PI. Both return unsolvable if no plan for PI exists.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is disjunctive normal form (DNF)?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

A disjunctive normal form is a canonical normal form of a logical formula consisting of a disjunction of conjunctions; it can also be described as an OR of ANDs.

(plus NNF: negation is only allowed before atoms)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is the difference between a STRIPS task and a positive normal form task?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

In the task in positive normal form, we can still have disjunctions in preconditions and goals, in STRIPS only conjunctions. (?)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is the link between effect and operator?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The effect results from an operator: eff(o)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What happens to a finite-domain state variable if in an effect it is set to two different values?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The accepted semantics
is to make this illegal, i.e., to make an operator inapplicable if it would lead to conﬂicting eﬀects. We call this the consistency condition.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is the output of an optimal planning task?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

A plan for PI with minimal cost among all plans for PI, or unsolvable if no plan for PI exists.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What happens to a propositional logic variable or a finite-domain state variable if it doesn't appear in the operator that is applied to it?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

It retains its old value.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is the output of a satisficing planning task?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

A plan for PI, or unsolvable if no plan for PI exists.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is a mutex?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Invariants that take the form of binary clauses are called mutexes because they express that certain variable assignments cannot be simultaneously true (are mutually exclusive).

Lösung ausblenden
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Q:

Why, when producing conflict-free flat operators, do we transform our operators by first making them conflict-free and then flat and not the other way round?

A:

Because they are still conflict-free after we made them flat. But if we made them flat first and then conflict-free, they are not guaranteed to still be flat.

Q:

Why can't we find all invariants for a planning task?

A:

We can't solve the problem in polynomial time, because in order to find all invariants, we have to prove that the inverse of the invariants is unreachable.

Therefore, we use algorithms that only compute a subset of all useful invariants (sound, but not complete).

Q:

What does domain-independent automated planning mean?

A:

Separate the knowledge of problems (rules represented as input data) from strategy of how to solve problems (a generic solver engine)

Q:

What is the difference between satisficing and optimal planning?

A:

Satisficing planning returns any solution for a planning task PI, optimal planning returns a plan with minimal costs among all plans for PI. Both return unsolvable if no plan for PI exists.

Q:

What is disjunctive normal form (DNF)?

A:

A disjunctive normal form is a canonical normal form of a logical formula consisting of a disjunction of conjunctions; it can also be described as an OR of ANDs.

(plus NNF: negation is only allowed before atoms)

Q:

What is the difference between a STRIPS task and a positive normal form task?

A:

In the task in positive normal form, we can still have disjunctions in preconditions and goals, in STRIPS only conjunctions. (?)

Q:

What is the link between effect and operator?

A:

The effect results from an operator: eff(o)

Q:

What happens to a finite-domain state variable if in an effect it is set to two different values?

A:

The accepted semantics
is to make this illegal, i.e., to make an operator inapplicable if it would lead to conﬂicting eﬀects. We call this the consistency condition.

Q:

What is the output of an optimal planning task?

A:

A plan for PI with minimal cost among all plans for PI, or unsolvable if no plan for PI exists.

Q:

What happens to a propositional logic variable or a finite-domain state variable if it doesn't appear in the operator that is applied to it?

A:

It retains its old value.

Q:

What is the output of a satisficing planning task?

A:

A plan for PI, or unsolvable if no plan for PI exists.

Q:

What is a mutex?

A:

Invariants that take the form of binary clauses are called mutexes because they express that certain variable assignments cannot be simultaneously true (are mutually exclusive).

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