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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What happens when a nucleus is too small?

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If a hypothetical nucleus is too small, the energy that would be released by forming its volume is not enough to create its surface, and nucleation does not proceed. Freezing does not start until the temperature is low enough to provide enough energy to form stable nuclei.

If a hypothetical nucleus is too small, the energy that would be released by forming its volume is not enough to create its surface, and nucleation does not proceed. Freezing does not start until the temperature is low enough to provide enough energy to form stable nuclei.

If a hypothetical nucleus is too small, the energy that would be released by forming its
volume is not enough to create its surface, and nucleation does not proceed. Freezing
does not start until the temperature is low enough to provide enough energy to form
stable nuclei.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

General properties of ceramics

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  • ˆCeramics are hard, but brittle and can withstand high temperatures. ˆ 
  • Several ceramics are semiconducting and are, therefore, used as (bio-)sensors. ˆ 
  • Although ceramics are also superconducting, often they are perfect insulators. ˆ 
  • Ceramics are in general more corrosion resistant than other materials. ˆ 
  • The crystalline or amorphous ceramics tend to fracture before they get plastically deformed. Their toughness is poor and becomes negatively affected by defects such as pores. There exist special routes of deformation.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is the critical nucleus size?

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The critical nucleus size can be denoted by its radius, and it is when r = r* (or r critical) that the nucleation proceeds.

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What are the conditions for heterogenous nucleation to occur?

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In presence of irregularities on the surface of the containing vessel, solid or gaseous impurities, pre-formed solid crystals, or other nucleators, heterogeneous nucleation may occur, where some energy is released by the partial destruction of the previous interface, raising the supercooling point to be near the melting point.

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What is homogenous nucleation?

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Crystallization on pure liquids, usually occuring at a lower temperature than the "regular" melting point, provided that there are no impurities. This phenomenon occurs rarely.

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What is the homogenous nucleation temperature?

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The homogeneous nucleation temperature can also be described as the pure substance freezing temperature.

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Define ceramics

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Ceramic materials describe a group of solid states which include ceramics, glasses and glass-ceramics, consisting of inorganic, nonmetallic compounds. The term ceramics covers inorganic, non-metallic ma- terials whose formation is generally related to the action of heat.

"

an article having a glazed or unglazed body of crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or of glass, which body is produced from essentially inorganic, nonmetal- lic substances and either is formed from a molten mass which solidifies on cooling, or is formed and simultaneously or subsequently matured by the action of the heat."

Ceramics are known to be hard, brittle, and often porous.


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What is the scaling theory of island growth in thin films?

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The scaling theory of island growth in thin films uses rate equations in order to describe thin-film growth from which the scaled island size distribution is obtained. Scaling theory seeks for an analytic solution to the rate equation and allows to calculate the time evolution of the island density, the mean island size and the substrate coverage using advanced Monte Carlo techniques.

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What is DSC?

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Differential scanning calorimetry or DSC is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature.

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Other word for maximum heterogeneous nucleation temperature

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Melting temperature

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Other word for homogeneous nucleation temperature

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Pure substance freezing temperature

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Classification of bioceramics

ˆ inert (bioinert): – Oxide ceramics (titania (TiO2), alumina (Al2O3), zirconia (ZrO2)); – Silica ceramics (silica glasses); – Carbon fiber (pyrolytic (glass-like) carbons); – Synthetic diamond. ˆ absorbable, i.e. they disintegrate/ dissolve within a certain period of time; ˆ active (bioactive), i.e. incorporated into (different) physiological processes – Calcium phosphates (various ones, including hydroxyapatite); – Bioactive glass (glass-ceramics).

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  • ˆinert (bioinert): 
    • Oxide ceramics (titania (TiO2), alumina (Al2O3), zirconia (ZrO2)); 
    • Silica ceramics (silica glasses); 
    • Carbon fiber (pyrolytic (glass-like) carbons); 
    • Synthetic diamond. ˆ 
  • absorbable, i.e. they disintegrate/ dissolve within a certain period of time; ˆ 
  • active (bioactive), i.e. incorporated into (different) physiological processes 
    • Calcium phosphates (various ones, including hydroxyapatite); 
    • Bioactive glass (glass-ceramics).
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Q:

What happens when a nucleus is too small?

A:

If a hypothetical nucleus is too small, the energy that would be released by forming its volume is not enough to create its surface, and nucleation does not proceed. Freezing does not start until the temperature is low enough to provide enough energy to form stable nuclei.

If a hypothetical nucleus is too small, the energy that would be released by forming its volume is not enough to create its surface, and nucleation does not proceed. Freezing does not start until the temperature is low enough to provide enough energy to form stable nuclei.

If a hypothetical nucleus is too small, the energy that would be released by forming its
volume is not enough to create its surface, and nucleation does not proceed. Freezing
does not start until the temperature is low enough to provide enough energy to form
stable nuclei.

Q:

General properties of ceramics

A:
  • ˆCeramics are hard, but brittle and can withstand high temperatures. ˆ 
  • Several ceramics are semiconducting and are, therefore, used as (bio-)sensors. ˆ 
  • Although ceramics are also superconducting, often they are perfect insulators. ˆ 
  • Ceramics are in general more corrosion resistant than other materials. ˆ 
  • The crystalline or amorphous ceramics tend to fracture before they get plastically deformed. Their toughness is poor and becomes negatively affected by defects such as pores. There exist special routes of deformation.
Q:

What is the critical nucleus size?

A:

The critical nucleus size can be denoted by its radius, and it is when r = r* (or r critical) that the nucleation proceeds.

Q:

What are the conditions for heterogenous nucleation to occur?

A:

In presence of irregularities on the surface of the containing vessel, solid or gaseous impurities, pre-formed solid crystals, or other nucleators, heterogeneous nucleation may occur, where some energy is released by the partial destruction of the previous interface, raising the supercooling point to be near the melting point.

Q:

What is homogenous nucleation?

A:

Crystallization on pure liquids, usually occuring at a lower temperature than the "regular" melting point, provided that there are no impurities. This phenomenon occurs rarely.

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What is the homogenous nucleation temperature?

A:

The homogeneous nucleation temperature can also be described as the pure substance freezing temperature.

Q:

Define ceramics

A:

Ceramic materials describe a group of solid states which include ceramics, glasses and glass-ceramics, consisting of inorganic, nonmetallic compounds. The term ceramics covers inorganic, non-metallic ma- terials whose formation is generally related to the action of heat.

"

an article having a glazed or unglazed body of crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or of glass, which body is produced from essentially inorganic, nonmetal- lic substances and either is formed from a molten mass which solidifies on cooling, or is formed and simultaneously or subsequently matured by the action of the heat."

Ceramics are known to be hard, brittle, and often porous.


Q:

What is the scaling theory of island growth in thin films?

A:

The scaling theory of island growth in thin films uses rate equations in order to describe thin-film growth from which the scaled island size distribution is obtained. Scaling theory seeks for an analytic solution to the rate equation and allows to calculate the time evolution of the island density, the mean island size and the substrate coverage using advanced Monte Carlo techniques.

Q:

What is DSC?

A:

Differential scanning calorimetry or DSC is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature.

Q:

Other word for maximum heterogeneous nucleation temperature

A:

Melting temperature

Q:

Other word for homogeneous nucleation temperature

A:

Pure substance freezing temperature

Q:

Classification of bioceramics

ˆ inert (bioinert): – Oxide ceramics (titania (TiO2), alumina (Al2O3), zirconia (ZrO2)); – Silica ceramics (silica glasses); – Carbon fiber (pyrolytic (glass-like) carbons); – Synthetic diamond. ˆ absorbable, i.e. they disintegrate/ dissolve within a certain period of time; ˆ active (bioactive), i.e. incorporated into (different) physiological processes – Calcium phosphates (various ones, including hydroxyapatite); – Bioactive glass (glass-ceramics).

A:
  • ˆinert (bioinert): 
    • Oxide ceramics (titania (TiO2), alumina (Al2O3), zirconia (ZrO2)); 
    • Silica ceramics (silica glasses); 
    • Carbon fiber (pyrolytic (glass-like) carbons); 
    • Synthetic diamond. ˆ 
  • absorbable, i.e. they disintegrate/ dissolve within a certain period of time; ˆ 
  • active (bioactive), i.e. incorporated into (different) physiological processes 
    • Calcium phosphates (various ones, including hydroxyapatite); 
    • Bioactive glass (glass-ceramics).
Materials Sciences & Biomaterials HS2021

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