Work & Organisational Psychology By Eileen at University Of Amsterdam | Flashcards & Summaries

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Joining & staying with organisation

Advantages & disadvantages?

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Advantages:

  • new people – new ideas


Disadvantages 

  • removes valuable knowledge, skills, & relationships with coworkers & external stakeholders => take time for new staff to acquire.
  • Effects on customer service, team development, & corporate culture strength.     
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Perceptual organisation Interpretation (3 strategies to reduce complexity & volume)

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  1. Categorical thinking = mostly nonconsciously organising people/objects into preconceived categories (stored in LTM)
    • Making sense of info even before become aware of it
  2. Emotional markers= quick judgements about whether info is good/bad
  3. Mental models = knowledge structures developed to describe, explain, & predict world around
    • To achieve goals with some degree of predictability & sanity = road maps of environments
    • Important role in making sense -> BUT: difficult to see world in different ways

(Biased: Leader closer to men than to women in mental models)

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Why don’t decision makers apply evidence-based management? 

(4)

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  • bombarded with ideas => difficult to find best, based on good evidence 
  • good OB research is necessarily generic => difficult figuring out which theories are relevant to their unique situation 
  •  sources of hype are rewarded for marketing their ideas, not for testing to see if they work
  • humans are affected by several perceptual errors and decision-making biases (i.e. confirming bias)
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Task performance 


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Individual’s voluntary goal-directed behaviours => contribute to organisational objectives

  • Proficient, adaptive, proactive
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Maintaining work attendance

Main causes?

When higher?

Bigger concern?

When bigger concern higher?

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Main causes of absenteeism and lateness 

  • situational factors (e.g., illness, bad weather & family demands, workplace bullying, difficult customers, boring work, and stressful conditions)


  • Higher with generous sick leave & high tolerance by coworkers
  • --> Dependent on person’s values & personality


  • Bigger concern presenteeism = showing up unwell, injured, preoccupied by personal problems, or faced with dangerous conditions getting to work
    • Less productive & may reduce others’ productivity too
    • Worsen their own health/increase safety risks for others
  • => higher with low job security, employees who lack sick leave pay, or similar financial buffers. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Advantages & Disadvantages of incongruent values

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Disadvantages of incongruence:

  • Less fitting decisions 
  • Less satisfaction & OCB
  • Increase in stress & leaving the organisation

Benefits of incongruence

  • diverse values offer different perspectives = better decision making
  • Too much congruence = “corporate cult” that undermines creativity, organisational flexibility, & business ethics. 
Lösung ausblenden
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What is organisational behaviour?

What?

Study what?

What levels?

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= study of what people think, feel, do in & around organisations 

  • Looks at employee behaviours, decisions, perceptions, emotional responses
  • Examines how individuals & teams in organisations relate to one another & to their counterparts in other organisations
  • Study of how organisations interact w/ their external environment, in context of employee behaviour and decisions

These are studied on 3 levels of analysis: the individual, team (including interpersonal), and organization

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Triple-bottom-line philosophy 


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= aim to survive & be profitable in marketplace (economic), but also intend to maintain or improve conditions for society (social) & physical environment.


  • Profit 
  • People
  • Planet
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The Practical Orientation Anchor 


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theories must be useful in practice

  • how well it finds its way into organisational life & how good at bettering organisation’s effectiveness. 
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The emerging workplace landscape (4)

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  1. Work-life integration (degree of effectiveness of work & nonwork roles and low degree of role conflict)
  2. Remote work (performing job away from organisation’s physical worksite)
  3. Employment relationship (Direct, Indirect, contract work)
  4. Diversity & inclusive workplace create an inclusive workplace (= values people of all identities & allows to be fully themselves while contributing to organisation)
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Organisations are…

(4 characteristics)

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  • Dependent on external environment: resources, information, and equipment; laws, cultural norms, and other expectations 
  • Numerous subsystems (departments, teams, technological processes, etc.) => transform incoming resources into outputs.
  • Outputs to external environment
    • Valuable to external environment (products and services) 
    • undesirable by-products (employee layoffs, pollution) 
  • Feedback about value of their outputs, availability of future inputs, & appropriateness of transformation process.
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Stereotyping 

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=  perceptual process assign characteristics to group & automatically transfer those features to anyone we believe is member of that group

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Q:

Joining & staying with organisation

Advantages & disadvantages?

A:

Advantages:

  • new people – new ideas


Disadvantages 

  • removes valuable knowledge, skills, & relationships with coworkers & external stakeholders => take time for new staff to acquire.
  • Effects on customer service, team development, & corporate culture strength.     
Q:

Perceptual organisation Interpretation (3 strategies to reduce complexity & volume)

A:
  1. Categorical thinking = mostly nonconsciously organising people/objects into preconceived categories (stored in LTM)
    • Making sense of info even before become aware of it
  2. Emotional markers= quick judgements about whether info is good/bad
  3. Mental models = knowledge structures developed to describe, explain, & predict world around
    • To achieve goals with some degree of predictability & sanity = road maps of environments
    • Important role in making sense -> BUT: difficult to see world in different ways

(Biased: Leader closer to men than to women in mental models)

Q:

Why don’t decision makers apply evidence-based management? 

(4)

A:
  • bombarded with ideas => difficult to find best, based on good evidence 
  • good OB research is necessarily generic => difficult figuring out which theories are relevant to their unique situation 
  •  sources of hype are rewarded for marketing their ideas, not for testing to see if they work
  • humans are affected by several perceptual errors and decision-making biases (i.e. confirming bias)
Q:

Task performance 


A:

Individual’s voluntary goal-directed behaviours => contribute to organisational objectives

  • Proficient, adaptive, proactive
Q:

Maintaining work attendance

Main causes?

When higher?

Bigger concern?

When bigger concern higher?

A:

Main causes of absenteeism and lateness 

  • situational factors (e.g., illness, bad weather & family demands, workplace bullying, difficult customers, boring work, and stressful conditions)


  • Higher with generous sick leave & high tolerance by coworkers
  • --> Dependent on person’s values & personality


  • Bigger concern presenteeism = showing up unwell, injured, preoccupied by personal problems, or faced with dangerous conditions getting to work
    • Less productive & may reduce others’ productivity too
    • Worsen their own health/increase safety risks for others
  • => higher with low job security, employees who lack sick leave pay, or similar financial buffers. 
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Advantages & Disadvantages of incongruent values

A:

Disadvantages of incongruence:

  • Less fitting decisions 
  • Less satisfaction & OCB
  • Increase in stress & leaving the organisation

Benefits of incongruence

  • diverse values offer different perspectives = better decision making
  • Too much congruence = “corporate cult” that undermines creativity, organisational flexibility, & business ethics. 
Q:

What is organisational behaviour?

What?

Study what?

What levels?

A:

= study of what people think, feel, do in & around organisations 

  • Looks at employee behaviours, decisions, perceptions, emotional responses
  • Examines how individuals & teams in organisations relate to one another & to their counterparts in other organisations
  • Study of how organisations interact w/ their external environment, in context of employee behaviour and decisions

These are studied on 3 levels of analysis: the individual, team (including interpersonal), and organization

Q:

Triple-bottom-line philosophy 


A:

= aim to survive & be profitable in marketplace (economic), but also intend to maintain or improve conditions for society (social) & physical environment.


  • Profit 
  • People
  • Planet
Q:

The Practical Orientation Anchor 


A:

theories must be useful in practice

  • how well it finds its way into organisational life & how good at bettering organisation’s effectiveness. 
Q:

The emerging workplace landscape (4)

A:
  1. Work-life integration (degree of effectiveness of work & nonwork roles and low degree of role conflict)
  2. Remote work (performing job away from organisation’s physical worksite)
  3. Employment relationship (Direct, Indirect, contract work)
  4. Diversity & inclusive workplace create an inclusive workplace (= values people of all identities & allows to be fully themselves while contributing to organisation)
Q:

Organisations are…

(4 characteristics)

A:
  • Dependent on external environment: resources, information, and equipment; laws, cultural norms, and other expectations 
  • Numerous subsystems (departments, teams, technological processes, etc.) => transform incoming resources into outputs.
  • Outputs to external environment
    • Valuable to external environment (products and services) 
    • undesirable by-products (employee layoffs, pollution) 
  • Feedback about value of their outputs, availability of future inputs, & appropriateness of transformation process.
Q:

Stereotyping 

A:

=  perceptual process assign characteristics to group & automatically transfer those features to anyone we believe is member of that group

Work & Organisational Psychology by Eileen

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