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Lernmaterialien für Prenatal Development an der University of Amsterdam

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Risks to Fetal Development

Infections

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  • Zika Virus: spread by mosquitos -> Microcephaly
    • Small skull, deviant brain growth, in combi w/ mental retardation & organ defects
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Risks to Fetal Development

Alcohol

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: 

  • minor facial anomalies, growth delay, heart defects, mental disabilities, hyperactivity, repetitive behavior
  • 6% of time
  • drinking behavior
  • Timing of alcohol consumption (critical period)->  which anomalities arise
  • alcohol metabolism ® faster digestion = less damage
  • age:  >30 increased risk
  • Genetic predisposition (twin studies, mechanisms unknown)
  • lifestyle & nutrition


  • Risk of spontaneous abortion
  • Opportunity for stillbirth
  • premature placental separation
  • intra-uterine growth retardation
  • being born prematurely
  • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
  • serious physical abnormalities
  • cognitive and behavioral disorders
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Risks to Fetal Development

Age


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  • Mothers Age: Down Syndrome ®w/ age risk goes up
    • Physical anomalies (epicanthus), mental retardation, heart defects
  • Fathers Age
    • Mutation Rate: transmitted mutation errors in sperm
    • Achondroplasia (dwarfism)
      • bad sperm cells usually don’t reach cell bc of bad mobility
      • rare mutation in FGFR3 gene increase w/age
      • mutation in sperm cells not only explanations
  • risk is still very low ® but small increase
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Developmental programming Hypothesis

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  • prenatal conditions have effects on health during adulthood
  • Diet & weight of fetus / baby can have consequences for breast cancer &  mental health
  • Malnutrition -> schizophrenia, antisocial personality disorder, mood disorder
  • Stress -> low birth weight, preterm birth, changes in fetal neurological development
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Risks to Fetal Development

Nutrition

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  • Calcium: bones & muscles 
  • Iron: red blood cells & tissue production
  • What mother eats & mothers weight gain/ loss fetal ®  influence fetal development in future (mental & physical)
  •  Timing of nutrition associated to certain kind of anomaly
  • Prepares baby for what to expect
  • Winter 1944 (famine during WW2)
    • Medical records of Babys: 
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Brain Activity after birth vs Adult

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Activity:

  • Motor, Auditory, Visual Cortex Networks = similar activity after birth
  • Higher cognitive function Networks (emotions, control) = dissimilar
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Cerebral cortex Development 

prenatal

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1. Begins from forebrain after - 9 weeks


2. 4 months:

  • Neurogenesis (cell division) & migrate of cells
  • Cortex develops -> 6 layers
  • foetal period


3. After 6 months: cortex folds (more cells)

  • Sulcus (sulci) = deep narrow grooves 
  • Gyrus (gyri) = tips waves 
  • lobes start to differentiate: get specialized task
  • process continues until months after birth
  • Myelination = Formation of myelin around neuron
    • fatty, insulating substance -> messages travel faster & more efficiently
    • accelerated neural transmission


3. After 27 weeks : Synaptogenesis & Apotosis

  • Synaptogenesis = formation of synapses between nerve cells
  • Apoptosis = programmed cell death
  • Nerve cells / neurons: signal goes viadendrites ® cell body ® axons ® synapses
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Fulfillment

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= end of pregnancy (from 38 weeks)

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The Vestibular System Develpment


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  • 6 weeks
    • 2 small, inwardly directed bubbles both sides of posterior of brain appear
    • later become innermost ears w/auditory & balance organs
  • 7 weeks: ear, ear canal and eardrum begin to form
  • 8 weeks: inner ear develops semicircular canals ® later hose organs
  • 9 weeks: audio organs are formed 
    • equilibrium organ and cochlea
  • 10 weeks: sensory cells formed 
  • 20 weeks: ossicles (malleus, incues, stapes) develope & start to harden
  • 24 weeks: cochlea starts to work
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Chemosensory system


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chemosensory systems 

  • gustatory (taste) 
  • olfactory (smell) 

 

  • What can foetuses smell/taste 
    • Difficult to indicate 
    • 16 weeks: everything in the amniotic fluid
    • Blood oft mother w/ nutrients
    • Through mother ® alcohol/ perfume can reach baby by blood/placenta ® influence development

 

  • Newborn children selectively responsive own mother's colostrum
    • colostrum = Fluid from breast that precedes milk
  • How do we know this
    • Taste & smell receptors developed
    • Fetus swallows & breaths more after meal from mother
    • Fetus makes faces after smoking
    • Fragrances/ tastes foetuses receive ® determine preference when born
    • Baby has preference for its own amniotic fluid
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Cochlea


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= inner ear, contains receptors that register sound


1. Collect auditory signal & conduct in direction of receptors

  • Ear cup, ear canal, ossicles


2. Converting pressure differences into electrophysiological signals

  • Hair cells in the cochlea


3. Processing of electrophysiological signals in brain

  • Brain stem, midbrain, thalamus, temporal lobe of  cerebral cortex
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Perinatal

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= period just before and after birth

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  • 19583 Karteikarten
  • 427 Studierende
  • 8 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Prenatal Development Kurs an der University of Amsterdam - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

Risks to Fetal Development

Infections

A:
  • Zika Virus: spread by mosquitos -> Microcephaly
    • Small skull, deviant brain growth, in combi w/ mental retardation & organ defects
Q:

Risks to Fetal Development

Alcohol

A:

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: 

  • minor facial anomalies, growth delay, heart defects, mental disabilities, hyperactivity, repetitive behavior
  • 6% of time
  • drinking behavior
  • Timing of alcohol consumption (critical period)->  which anomalities arise
  • alcohol metabolism ® faster digestion = less damage
  • age:  >30 increased risk
  • Genetic predisposition (twin studies, mechanisms unknown)
  • lifestyle & nutrition


  • Risk of spontaneous abortion
  • Opportunity for stillbirth
  • premature placental separation
  • intra-uterine growth retardation
  • being born prematurely
  • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
  • serious physical abnormalities
  • cognitive and behavioral disorders
Q:

Risks to Fetal Development

Age


A:
  • Mothers Age: Down Syndrome ®w/ age risk goes up
    • Physical anomalies (epicanthus), mental retardation, heart defects
  • Fathers Age
    • Mutation Rate: transmitted mutation errors in sperm
    • Achondroplasia (dwarfism)
      • bad sperm cells usually don’t reach cell bc of bad mobility
      • rare mutation in FGFR3 gene increase w/age
      • mutation in sperm cells not only explanations
  • risk is still very low ® but small increase
Q:

Developmental programming Hypothesis

A:
  • prenatal conditions have effects on health during adulthood
  • Diet & weight of fetus / baby can have consequences for breast cancer &  mental health
  • Malnutrition -> schizophrenia, antisocial personality disorder, mood disorder
  • Stress -> low birth weight, preterm birth, changes in fetal neurological development
Q:

Risks to Fetal Development

Nutrition

A:
  • Calcium: bones & muscles 
  • Iron: red blood cells & tissue production
  • What mother eats & mothers weight gain/ loss fetal ®  influence fetal development in future (mental & physical)
  •  Timing of nutrition associated to certain kind of anomaly
  • Prepares baby for what to expect
  • Winter 1944 (famine during WW2)
    • Medical records of Babys: 
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Brain Activity after birth vs Adult

A:

Activity:

  • Motor, Auditory, Visual Cortex Networks = similar activity after birth
  • Higher cognitive function Networks (emotions, control) = dissimilar
Q:

Cerebral cortex Development 

prenatal

A:

1. Begins from forebrain after - 9 weeks


2. 4 months:

  • Neurogenesis (cell division) & migrate of cells
  • Cortex develops -> 6 layers
  • foetal period


3. After 6 months: cortex folds (more cells)

  • Sulcus (sulci) = deep narrow grooves 
  • Gyrus (gyri) = tips waves 
  • lobes start to differentiate: get specialized task
  • process continues until months after birth
  • Myelination = Formation of myelin around neuron
    • fatty, insulating substance -> messages travel faster & more efficiently
    • accelerated neural transmission


3. After 27 weeks : Synaptogenesis & Apotosis

  • Synaptogenesis = formation of synapses between nerve cells
  • Apoptosis = programmed cell death
  • Nerve cells / neurons: signal goes viadendrites ® cell body ® axons ® synapses
Q:

Fulfillment

A:

= end of pregnancy (from 38 weeks)

Q:

The Vestibular System Develpment


A:
  • 6 weeks
    • 2 small, inwardly directed bubbles both sides of posterior of brain appear
    • later become innermost ears w/auditory & balance organs
  • 7 weeks: ear, ear canal and eardrum begin to form
  • 8 weeks: inner ear develops semicircular canals ® later hose organs
  • 9 weeks: audio organs are formed 
    • equilibrium organ and cochlea
  • 10 weeks: sensory cells formed 
  • 20 weeks: ossicles (malleus, incues, stapes) develope & start to harden
  • 24 weeks: cochlea starts to work
Q:

Chemosensory system


A:

chemosensory systems 

  • gustatory (taste) 
  • olfactory (smell) 

 

  • What can foetuses smell/taste 
    • Difficult to indicate 
    • 16 weeks: everything in the amniotic fluid
    • Blood oft mother w/ nutrients
    • Through mother ® alcohol/ perfume can reach baby by blood/placenta ® influence development

 

  • Newborn children selectively responsive own mother's colostrum
    • colostrum = Fluid from breast that precedes milk
  • How do we know this
    • Taste & smell receptors developed
    • Fetus swallows & breaths more after meal from mother
    • Fetus makes faces after smoking
    • Fragrances/ tastes foetuses receive ® determine preference when born
    • Baby has preference for its own amniotic fluid
Q:

Cochlea


A:

= inner ear, contains receptors that register sound


1. Collect auditory signal & conduct in direction of receptors

  • Ear cup, ear canal, ossicles


2. Converting pressure differences into electrophysiological signals

  • Hair cells in the cochlea


3. Processing of electrophysiological signals in brain

  • Brain stem, midbrain, thalamus, temporal lobe of  cerebral cortex
Q:

Perinatal

A:

= period just before and after birth

Prenatal Development

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