Introductory Psychology E2 at University Of Amsterdam | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Introductory Psychology E2 an der University of Amsterdam

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What evidence suggest that the status of being an involuntary minority may be particularly dertimental to IQ development?

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Involuntary minorities score lower on IQ tests than voluntary minorities. 

But for example for the Buraku's, when they moved to the US, they scored just as great as other Japanese Americans. Although back in Japan there would have been a difference, because they were involuntary there.


According to Ogbu, this is once again because of the sense of being an outcast, like the stereotype threat.

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What evidence suggests that the average IQ difference between black and white Americans derives form the environment, not genes?

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No correlation has been found between ancestry and IQ. It might rely more on cultural groups. 

It is suggested intelligence can only be meaningfully assessed within the culture in a which a child lives. 

IQ tests might be biased towards majority and minority. 


Minorities scored higher on the non verbal tests

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What evidence suggests that intellectual involvement can increase a persons fluid intelligence over time?

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When people follow an occupation doing more routine work, their intellectual flexibility decreases.

Yet, with occupations dealing with alot of info and complex decisions, their intellectual flexibility increases. 


Same for leisure-time-activities. 

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What is a stereotypical threat, and how does it explain differences in IQ between white and black americans?

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When people are made aware of their negative stereotype being tested, they perform worse than when not informed of this. 

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How might the historical increase in fluid intelligence be explained?

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​In modern life we are better in education, engagement in intellectualy demanding work and also we process new information daily. Which is all what the fluid i test is about. 

Also in games and tv you need to remmeber alot of concepts and rules, which excercises our working memory capacity.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How does history provide further evidence that IQ is highly susceptible to cultural influence? On which measures has IQ increased the most?

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The average scores for IQ tests rise 9 to 15 points every 30 years. So norm adjusmtents are made all the time. 

- Especially the fluid intelligence ravens test has the greatest increase, although it is least affected by culture.

 (might show how crystalized i depends on fi)

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How can a persons rearing environment influence the H of IQ?

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H increases with improved environmental conditions. 

​Harmful environments impact the development of certain traits. 

high education group of siblings reared apart = .74

low education = .26


Genetic differences are influenced through the genes that influence the traits such as acquisition and recall of facts. 

(see new relationships; curiosity; reading; long term memory; thin kquickly)


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What is the evidence that the effect of a shared family environment on IQ correlations is lostm in adulthood? How might this loss be explained?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Unrelated siblings living together in same family r=.25

but later in life when tested again r=0


But the stronger the degree of genetic relationship, the smaller the decline. 


They choose their own environment form the moment of early adult life

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Why can't H found within groups be used to infer the source of differences between groups?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

​If seeds from the same genetic variety get split up into two fields, one with good and the other bad soil. Within the fields, the differences in quality of the wheats will mostly influenced by genes. But between both groups, it will entirely rely on environment.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What kinds of false inferences are likely to result form the availability bias?

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Inferences made on information that is readily available, or better said, consciously recalled.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How does deductive reasoning differ from inductive reasoning? How is it illustrated by series problems and syllogisms?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

In deductive reasoning you conclude from general to specific. In the assumption the premesis is accepted as the truth.

It is either valid or invalid


In series problems you need to organize the items from comparisons and make a conclusion from the earlier statements.


In syllogisms major and minor premises (or propositions) are presented and you conclude if the last statement is true, false on indeterminate.



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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is inductive reasoning, and why is it also called hypothesis construction?  Why is reasoning by analogy inductive?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Inductive reasoning is hypothesis construction, because it is merely an educated guess.

The attempt to infer from a specific observation or fact onto a general principle or proposition.


Reasoning by analogy is inductive because an inference is made upon a set of (past) experiences that are similar. 



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Q:

What evidence suggest that the status of being an involuntary minority may be particularly dertimental to IQ development?

A:

Involuntary minorities score lower on IQ tests than voluntary minorities. 

But for example for the Buraku's, when they moved to the US, they scored just as great as other Japanese Americans. Although back in Japan there would have been a difference, because they were involuntary there.


According to Ogbu, this is once again because of the sense of being an outcast, like the stereotype threat.

Q:

What evidence suggests that the average IQ difference between black and white Americans derives form the environment, not genes?

A:

No correlation has been found between ancestry and IQ. It might rely more on cultural groups. 

It is suggested intelligence can only be meaningfully assessed within the culture in a which a child lives. 

IQ tests might be biased towards majority and minority. 


Minorities scored higher on the non verbal tests

Q:

What evidence suggests that intellectual involvement can increase a persons fluid intelligence over time?

A:

When people follow an occupation doing more routine work, their intellectual flexibility decreases.

Yet, with occupations dealing with alot of info and complex decisions, their intellectual flexibility increases. 


Same for leisure-time-activities. 

Q:

What is a stereotypical threat, and how does it explain differences in IQ between white and black americans?

A:

When people are made aware of their negative stereotype being tested, they perform worse than when not informed of this. 

Q:

How might the historical increase in fluid intelligence be explained?

A:

​In modern life we are better in education, engagement in intellectualy demanding work and also we process new information daily. Which is all what the fluid i test is about. 

Also in games and tv you need to remmeber alot of concepts and rules, which excercises our working memory capacity.

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

How does history provide further evidence that IQ is highly susceptible to cultural influence? On which measures has IQ increased the most?

A:

The average scores for IQ tests rise 9 to 15 points every 30 years. So norm adjusmtents are made all the time. 

- Especially the fluid intelligence ravens test has the greatest increase, although it is least affected by culture.

 (might show how crystalized i depends on fi)

Q:

How can a persons rearing environment influence the H of IQ?

A:

H increases with improved environmental conditions. 

​Harmful environments impact the development of certain traits. 

high education group of siblings reared apart = .74

low education = .26


Genetic differences are influenced through the genes that influence the traits such as acquisition and recall of facts. 

(see new relationships; curiosity; reading; long term memory; thin kquickly)


Q:

What is the evidence that the effect of a shared family environment on IQ correlations is lostm in adulthood? How might this loss be explained?

A:

Unrelated siblings living together in same family r=.25

but later in life when tested again r=0


But the stronger the degree of genetic relationship, the smaller the decline. 


They choose their own environment form the moment of early adult life

Q:

Why can't H found within groups be used to infer the source of differences between groups?

A:

​If seeds from the same genetic variety get split up into two fields, one with good and the other bad soil. Within the fields, the differences in quality of the wheats will mostly influenced by genes. But between both groups, it will entirely rely on environment.

Q:

What kinds of false inferences are likely to result form the availability bias?

A:

Inferences made on information that is readily available, or better said, consciously recalled.

Q:

How does deductive reasoning differ from inductive reasoning? How is it illustrated by series problems and syllogisms?

A:

In deductive reasoning you conclude from general to specific. In the assumption the premesis is accepted as the truth.

It is either valid or invalid


In series problems you need to organize the items from comparisons and make a conclusion from the earlier statements.


In syllogisms major and minor premises (or propositions) are presented and you conclude if the last statement is true, false on indeterminate.



Q:

What is inductive reasoning, and why is it also called hypothesis construction?  Why is reasoning by analogy inductive?

A:

Inductive reasoning is hypothesis construction, because it is merely an educated guess.

The attempt to infer from a specific observation or fact onto a general principle or proposition.


Reasoning by analogy is inductive because an inference is made upon a set of (past) experiences that are similar. 



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