Developmental at University Of Amsterdam | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Developmental an der University of Amsterdam

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Minor theories

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  • theory about a single phenomenon, deal with specific, narrow parts of development
    • Example: learning to see depth
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Major theories

- Definition

- 6 major theories

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= broader theory, try to indicate the big picture of the development of a child.

  • Motor development
  • Cognitive development
  • Social-cognitive development
  • Evolution and ethology
  • Psychoanalytic theories
  • Humanistic theory
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Motor milestones 

What?

Why?

How?

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basic motor skills that are acquired during infancy and early childhood, such as sitting, standing, crawling and walking.


  • gradually creating more independence
  • when a baby learns to crawl, other developments are stimulated
  • sight, certain emotions (by falling / standing) & certain social aspects are stimulated

 

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Motor abilities at birth

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sucking, looking, breathing, crying => important for survival

  • seems as if the muscles are unable to lift the weight of the baby
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How are order & timing of development organised?

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  • Order of motor development fairly consistent
  • but the timing is variable (not every child starts crawling at the same age)
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Nature vs. Nurture

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  • Nature = Knowledge is innate and gets expressed during the course of development
  • Nurture =  Only learning mechanisms are innate, all the rest of development is determined by the environment 
  • Nature & Nurture = Both innate predispositions & the environment shape development
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Continuous vs. Stages

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  • Continuous = Development is gradual; children are not qualitatively different from adults; children lack experience
  • Stages = Development occurs in transitions; children are qualitatively different from adults
  • Continuous & Stages = Development is gradual; but some behaviours dominate temporarily and that’s why development appears to occur stagewise
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Passive vs. Active


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  • Passive = Child plays a passive role; development occurs automatically
  • Actively = Child plays an active role in its own development; constructs its own knowledge 
  • Passive & active = Some processes develop automatically; other processes need an active role of the child
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Two motor development theories:


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  1. Maturation theory, Gesell: the same developmental patterns independent of environmental input
  2. Dynamic system theory (Esther Thelen): a theoretical approach that applies to many areas of development which view the individual as interacting dynamically in a complex system in which all parts interact. 
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Maturation theory, Gesell:

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= the same developmental patterns independent of environmental input


  • Maturation of the CNS determines development of child, behavioural development follows
    • Cephalocaudal trend = development from head to foot
    • Proximodistal trend = motor control during the infancy develops from centre of the body => peripheral parts of the body, from trunk to fingers / toes
  • These two ways in combination with the milestone system => idea that maturation in itself provides for motor development
  • Differences in temperament play an important role in pace of development
  • Role of parent: provide right environment (=when child is ready, no pushing)
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Criticism to Maturation theory, Gesell

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  • Not all children follow the same pattern
  • Does not generalise to all cultures
  • Environment can play guiding role (McGraw)
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Theory of development

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scheme or system of ideas that are based on evidence and try to explain, describe and predict behaviour and development

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  • 18993 Karteikarten
  • 411 Studierende
  • 8 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Developmental Kurs an der University of Amsterdam - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

Minor theories

A:
  • theory about a single phenomenon, deal with specific, narrow parts of development
    • Example: learning to see depth
Q:

Major theories

- Definition

- 6 major theories

A:

= broader theory, try to indicate the big picture of the development of a child.

  • Motor development
  • Cognitive development
  • Social-cognitive development
  • Evolution and ethology
  • Psychoanalytic theories
  • Humanistic theory
Q:

Motor milestones 

What?

Why?

How?

A:

basic motor skills that are acquired during infancy and early childhood, such as sitting, standing, crawling and walking.


  • gradually creating more independence
  • when a baby learns to crawl, other developments are stimulated
  • sight, certain emotions (by falling / standing) & certain social aspects are stimulated

 

Q:

Motor abilities at birth

A:

sucking, looking, breathing, crying => important for survival

  • seems as if the muscles are unable to lift the weight of the baby
Q:

How are order & timing of development organised?

A:
  • Order of motor development fairly consistent
  • but the timing is variable (not every child starts crawling at the same age)
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Nature vs. Nurture

A:
  • Nature = Knowledge is innate and gets expressed during the course of development
  • Nurture =  Only learning mechanisms are innate, all the rest of development is determined by the environment 
  • Nature & Nurture = Both innate predispositions & the environment shape development
Q:

Continuous vs. Stages

A:
  • Continuous = Development is gradual; children are not qualitatively different from adults; children lack experience
  • Stages = Development occurs in transitions; children are qualitatively different from adults
  • Continuous & Stages = Development is gradual; but some behaviours dominate temporarily and that’s why development appears to occur stagewise
Q:

Passive vs. Active


A:
  • Passive = Child plays a passive role; development occurs automatically
  • Actively = Child plays an active role in its own development; constructs its own knowledge 
  • Passive & active = Some processes develop automatically; other processes need an active role of the child
Q:

Two motor development theories:


A:
  1. Maturation theory, Gesell: the same developmental patterns independent of environmental input
  2. Dynamic system theory (Esther Thelen): a theoretical approach that applies to many areas of development which view the individual as interacting dynamically in a complex system in which all parts interact. 
Q:

Maturation theory, Gesell:

A:

= the same developmental patterns independent of environmental input


  • Maturation of the CNS determines development of child, behavioural development follows
    • Cephalocaudal trend = development from head to foot
    • Proximodistal trend = motor control during the infancy develops from centre of the body => peripheral parts of the body, from trunk to fingers / toes
  • These two ways in combination with the milestone system => idea that maturation in itself provides for motor development
  • Differences in temperament play an important role in pace of development
  • Role of parent: provide right environment (=when child is ready, no pushing)
Q:

Criticism to Maturation theory, Gesell

A:


  • Not all children follow the same pattern
  • Does not generalise to all cultures
  • Environment can play guiding role (McGraw)
Q:

Theory of development

A:

scheme or system of ideas that are based on evidence and try to explain, describe and predict behaviour and development

Developmental

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