BIOCHEMISTRY at Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für BIOCHEMISTRY an der Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

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Based on mechanism of action, the hormones may
be classified into two which are?

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Group I. Hormones with cell surface receptors
Group II. Hormones with intracellular receptors.

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Membrane receptors:

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  • Embedded in target cell membrane;
    integral proteins /glycoproteins;
  • penetrate through membrane
  • Bind protein & charged hormones (peptides or neurotransmitters)
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Intracellular receptors ( Cytosolic/Nuclear)

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  • Nuclear proteins that usually act in pairs & bind to specific Hormone Recognition Elements (HREs) = sequences on the DNA in the promoter regions of target genes
  • Bind small, hydrophobic molecules (steroids, thyroid hormones)
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Fast or Post Absorptive State

GLUCAGON

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  1. It stimulates the key enzyme called glycogen phosphorylase in glycogenolysis via cAMP dependent phosphorylation.
  2. It induces the key enzyme of gluconeogenesis.
    {PEPCK, glucose 6 phosphatase & F 1,6 bisphosphatase}
  3. It inhibits key enzyme of glycogen synthesis {glycogen synthase}.
  4. Glucagon inhibits the gene expression of the key enzyme of glycolysis.
  5. It mobilizes free fatty acid, which is used as energy, from adipose tissue by activating lipolysis
  6. Decrease Insulin/Glucagon ratio stimulates the ketone bodies formation which can be used as metabolic fuel for extrahepatic tissues in prolong fasting.
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How many malonate used (how many reaction cycles) per synthesis of one 16-C palminate?

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7

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Total acetyl-CoA used for priming & for synthesis of malonate, a + b(c):

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8

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How many ~P bonds of ATP used for synthesis of each
malonate?

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1

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Total ~P bonds of ATP used for synthesis of one 16-C palmitate, 2a(1c):

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7

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How many NADPH used per reaction cycle?

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2

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Total NADPH used per synthesis of one 16-C palmitate, 3a(1c):

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14

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Blood glucose homeostasis can be differentiated in two parts:

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1. Fed or absorptive state (2 hours after meal).
2. Fast or Post absorptive state (hypoglycemic state)

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Hyperglycaemia (Diabetes Mellitus)

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  • Chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to insulin deficiency or insulin resistance.
  • Three type - Type 1 (IDDM)
    - Type 2 (NIDDM)
    - Gestational DM
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  • 151 Studierende
  • 1 Lernmaterialien

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Q:

Based on mechanism of action, the hormones may
be classified into two which are?

A:


Group I. Hormones with cell surface receptors
Group II. Hormones with intracellular receptors.

Q:

Membrane receptors:

A:
  • Embedded in target cell membrane;
    integral proteins /glycoproteins;
  • penetrate through membrane
  • Bind protein & charged hormones (peptides or neurotransmitters)
Q:

Intracellular receptors ( Cytosolic/Nuclear)

A:
  • Nuclear proteins that usually act in pairs & bind to specific Hormone Recognition Elements (HREs) = sequences on the DNA in the promoter regions of target genes
  • Bind small, hydrophobic molecules (steroids, thyroid hormones)
Q:

Fast or Post Absorptive State

GLUCAGON

A:
  1. It stimulates the key enzyme called glycogen phosphorylase in glycogenolysis via cAMP dependent phosphorylation.
  2. It induces the key enzyme of gluconeogenesis.
    {PEPCK, glucose 6 phosphatase & F 1,6 bisphosphatase}
  3. It inhibits key enzyme of glycogen synthesis {glycogen synthase}.
  4. Glucagon inhibits the gene expression of the key enzyme of glycolysis.
  5. It mobilizes free fatty acid, which is used as energy, from adipose tissue by activating lipolysis
  6. Decrease Insulin/Glucagon ratio stimulates the ketone bodies formation which can be used as metabolic fuel for extrahepatic tissues in prolong fasting.
Q:

How many malonate used (how many reaction cycles) per synthesis of one 16-C palminate?

A:

7

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Total acetyl-CoA used for priming & for synthesis of malonate, a + b(c):

A:

8

Q:

How many ~P bonds of ATP used for synthesis of each
malonate?

A:

1

Q:

Total ~P bonds of ATP used for synthesis of one 16-C palmitate, 2a(1c):

A:

7

Q:

How many NADPH used per reaction cycle?

A:

2

Q:

Total NADPH used per synthesis of one 16-C palmitate, 3a(1c):

A:

14

Q:

Blood glucose homeostasis can be differentiated in two parts:

A:

1. Fed or absorptive state (2 hours after meal).
2. Fast or Post absorptive state (hypoglycemic state)

Q:

Hyperglycaemia (Diabetes Mellitus)

A:
  • Chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to insulin deficiency or insulin resistance.
  • Three type - Type 1 (IDDM)
    - Type 2 (NIDDM)
    - Gestational DM
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