[PHARMACOLOGY] DRUG ADMINISTRATION, ABSORPTION AND DISTRIBUTION at Universiti Putra Malaysia | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für [PHARMACOLOGY] DRUG ADMINISTRATION, ABSORPTION AND DISTRIBUTION an der Universiti Putra Malaysia

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the other parenteral route?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Epidural –injection of a local anesthetic and an opioid into the lumbar epidural space
  • Intrathecal – into spinal canal
  • Intra-osseus – into bone
  • Intra-synovial – joint cavity
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the factors that need to be considered in selecting the route of administration?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Amount of drug
  • Site of desired effect
  • Duration of desired effect
  • Drug preparation 
  • Drug properties
  • Patient condition 
  • Purpose of administration 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What affects drug distribution ?(Factors)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Plasma protein binding (important in structure design & prioritize compound)
  • Drug binding to plasma protein (albumin)
  • When- drugs are saturated- increase in drug concentration in tissue -slight changes in binding  - significant changes in clinical response/ toxic response
  • Reversible

Other protein: beta-globulin, alpha-acid glycoprotein, lipoprotein 

Bound drug - less distributed & metabolized
Unbound drug - produce effect, pharmacologically active, undergo metabolism, can be eliminated 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Factors Affecting Drug-plasma Protein Binding
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Number of drug binding sites on the protein
  • Protein concentration (plasma protein)
  • Lipid solubility
  • Weak acids are bound more extensively than weak bases
  • Competing molecules (drug A & drug B: e.g aspirin and warfarin)
  • Disease (cannot synthesis protein or protein losing enteropathy

*In hypoalbuminemia – the free drug will produce severe toxic effect
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is drug biotransport? And in what way?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
It is translocation of one solute across a biological barrier. Through two ways, which are passive and active
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
About Subcutaneous (SQ)
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Injection into fatty layer or tissue under skin.
Slow and sustained
• Suitable for insoluble suspension and implantation of solid pellets
• Suitable for small volumes
• Possible pain or necrosis from irritating substances
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
About Intravenous (IV)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Bypass absorption, potential immediate effects
  • Suitable for large volume and irritating substances (when diluted)
  • Must inject slowly
  • Not suitable: for oily or insoluble substance
  • Increased risk of adverse effect; over dose
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the advantages of enteral route?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Most common, convenient, economical and safest

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Differences of epidural and intrathecal injection
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Intrathecal injection is delivered directly into CSF and into superficial spinal cord while epidural administration  diffuses through the dura into the CSF hence has a slower onset of action
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is first pass metabolism (fpm)?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
A phenomenon in which the drug concentration that is induced orally  is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation. 

Liver intercepts the majority  of the consumed edible and breaks enough down to where the effect is diminished.

Note: to avoid this make sure to eat before taking the medicine
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the advantages of parenteral route?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Deliver drug in its active form
  • Higher availability, extensive, and predictable than oral 
  • Effective dose - more accurately delivered
  • Emergency therapy- patients unconscious or can't retain anything given by mouth
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is epidural? What type of route is this method?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
injection of a local anesthetic and an opioid into the lumbar 
epidural space
Lösung ausblenden
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Q:
What are the other parenteral route?
A:
  • Epidural –injection of a local anesthetic and an opioid into the lumbar epidural space
  • Intrathecal – into spinal canal
  • Intra-osseus – into bone
  • Intra-synovial – joint cavity
Q:
What are the factors that need to be considered in selecting the route of administration?
A:
  • Amount of drug
  • Site of desired effect
  • Duration of desired effect
  • Drug preparation 
  • Drug properties
  • Patient condition 
  • Purpose of administration 
Q:
What affects drug distribution ?(Factors)
A:
Plasma protein binding (important in structure design & prioritize compound)
  • Drug binding to plasma protein (albumin)
  • When- drugs are saturated- increase in drug concentration in tissue -slight changes in binding  - significant changes in clinical response/ toxic response
  • Reversible

Other protein: beta-globulin, alpha-acid glycoprotein, lipoprotein 

Bound drug - less distributed & metabolized
Unbound drug - produce effect, pharmacologically active, undergo metabolism, can be eliminated 
Q:
Factors Affecting Drug-plasma Protein Binding
A:
  • Number of drug binding sites on the protein
  • Protein concentration (plasma protein)
  • Lipid solubility
  • Weak acids are bound more extensively than weak bases
  • Competing molecules (drug A & drug B: e.g aspirin and warfarin)
  • Disease (cannot synthesis protein or protein losing enteropathy

*In hypoalbuminemia – the free drug will produce severe toxic effect
Q:
What is drug biotransport? And in what way?
A:
It is translocation of one solute across a biological barrier. Through two ways, which are passive and active
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
About Subcutaneous (SQ)
A:
Injection into fatty layer or tissue under skin.
Slow and sustained
• Suitable for insoluble suspension and implantation of solid pellets
• Suitable for small volumes
• Possible pain or necrosis from irritating substances
Q:
About Intravenous (IV)
A:
  • Bypass absorption, potential immediate effects
  • Suitable for large volume and irritating substances (when diluted)
  • Must inject slowly
  • Not suitable: for oily or insoluble substance
  • Increased risk of adverse effect; over dose
Q:
What are the advantages of enteral route?
A:
Most common, convenient, economical and safest

Q:
Differences of epidural and intrathecal injection
A:
Intrathecal injection is delivered directly into CSF and into superficial spinal cord while epidural administration  diffuses through the dura into the CSF hence has a slower onset of action
Q:
What is first pass metabolism (fpm)?
A:
A phenomenon in which the drug concentration that is induced orally  is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation. 

Liver intercepts the majority  of the consumed edible and breaks enough down to where the effect is diminished.

Note: to avoid this make sure to eat before taking the medicine
Q:
What are the advantages of parenteral route?

A:
  • Deliver drug in its active form
  • Higher availability, extensive, and predictable than oral 
  • Effective dose - more accurately delivered
  • Emergency therapy- patients unconscious or can't retain anything given by mouth
Q:
What is epidural? What type of route is this method?
A:
injection of a local anesthetic and an opioid into the lumbar 
epidural space
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