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Lernmaterialien für Zellbiologie an der Universität Wien

Greife auf kostenlose Karteikarten, Zusammenfassungen, Übungsaufgaben und Altklausuren für deinen Zellbiologie Kurs an der Universität Wien zu.

TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is special about prokaryotes? 
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• They are single-celled and microscopic 
• Greatest biochemical diversity 
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What are the characteristics of eukaryotic cells? 
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• Membrane-enclosed organelles —> the largest of which is usually nucleus 
• Internal membranes partition cell into organelles
• Plant and animal cells most same organelles 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Cell as a self-replicating collection of catalysts. How polynucleotides and proteins function ? 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• Polynucleotides provide sequence information 
• Proteins (amino acid polymers) provide most of catalytic functions 

Serve to bring about the synthesis of more polynucleotides and proteins of the same type 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Which upper limits on the size of cells are set by metabolic requirements?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• Logistics of carrying out cellular metabolism sets limits on size of cells 
• Surface area to volume ratio is critical 
• Surface area increases by factor n^2, volume by n^3 —> small cells greater surface area relative to volume
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the characteristics of prokaryotic cells? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• No nucleus
• DNA in unbound region called nucleoid 
• No membrane-bound organelles 
• Cytoplasm bound by plasma membrane 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Definition of cell ? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
The cell is the lowest level of organisation that can perform all activities required for life 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How genetic information is broadcast for use inside the cell? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Each cell contains fixed set of DNA molecules —> archive of genetic information.

Given segment of DNA guides synthesis of many identical RNA transcripts —> serve as working copies stored in archive 

Many different sets of RNA molecules can made by transcribing different parts of cell’s DNA sequences —> allowing different types of cells use same information store differently
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How does a protein molecule acts as a catalyst for a chemical reaction ? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• In protein molecule —> polymer chain folds up into specific shape defined by amino acid sequence 
• Groove in surface of folded molecule (enzyme lysozyme) forms catalytic site 
• Polysaccharide molecule binds to the catalytic site of lysozyme and breaks apart —> result : covalent bond-breaking reaction catalyzed by amino acids lining the groove 

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Explain the templated polymerization of a new strand
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• Sequence of nucleotides in existing DNA strand controls sequence in which nucleotides are joined together 
• New strand has sequence complementary to old strand and a backbone with opposite directionality 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Definition of Gene
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Specific segment of DNA sequence (part on chromosome) corresponding to a single protein or set of alternative proteins or to a single catalytic, regulatory, or structural RNA molecule.

Each Protein encodes by specific Gene
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How becomes the information of the DNA a protein ?  
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Genetic information —> two-step process

First :
In transcription, segments of DNA used to guide synthesis of molecules of RNA

Second : 
In translation, RNA molecules used to guide synthesis of molecules of protein 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the difference between a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic cell? 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• Prokaryotic cells are simpler, usually smaller 
• They doesn’t contain nucleus or other membrane-enclosed organelles 
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  • 96 Lernmaterialien

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Q:
What is special about prokaryotes? 
A:
• They are single-celled and microscopic 
• Greatest biochemical diversity 
Q:
What are the characteristics of eukaryotic cells? 
A:
• Membrane-enclosed organelles —> the largest of which is usually nucleus 
• Internal membranes partition cell into organelles
• Plant and animal cells most same organelles 
Q:
Cell as a self-replicating collection of catalysts. How polynucleotides and proteins function ? 
A:
• Polynucleotides provide sequence information 
• Proteins (amino acid polymers) provide most of catalytic functions 

Serve to bring about the synthesis of more polynucleotides and proteins of the same type 
Q:
Which upper limits on the size of cells are set by metabolic requirements?
A:
• Logistics of carrying out cellular metabolism sets limits on size of cells 
• Surface area to volume ratio is critical 
• Surface area increases by factor n^2, volume by n^3 —> small cells greater surface area relative to volume
Q:
What are the characteristics of prokaryotic cells? 
A:
• No nucleus
• DNA in unbound region called nucleoid 
• No membrane-bound organelles 
• Cytoplasm bound by plasma membrane 
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Definition of cell ? 
A:
The cell is the lowest level of organisation that can perform all activities required for life 
Q:
How genetic information is broadcast for use inside the cell? 
A:
Each cell contains fixed set of DNA molecules —> archive of genetic information.

Given segment of DNA guides synthesis of many identical RNA transcripts —> serve as working copies stored in archive 

Many different sets of RNA molecules can made by transcribing different parts of cell’s DNA sequences —> allowing different types of cells use same information store differently
Q:
How does a protein molecule acts as a catalyst for a chemical reaction ? 
A:
• In protein molecule —> polymer chain folds up into specific shape defined by amino acid sequence 
• Groove in surface of folded molecule (enzyme lysozyme) forms catalytic site 
• Polysaccharide molecule binds to the catalytic site of lysozyme and breaks apart —> result : covalent bond-breaking reaction catalyzed by amino acids lining the groove 

Q:
Explain the templated polymerization of a new strand
A:
• Sequence of nucleotides in existing DNA strand controls sequence in which nucleotides are joined together 
• New strand has sequence complementary to old strand and a backbone with opposite directionality 
Q:
Definition of Gene
A:
Specific segment of DNA sequence (part on chromosome) corresponding to a single protein or set of alternative proteins or to a single catalytic, regulatory, or structural RNA molecule.

Each Protein encodes by specific Gene
Q:
How becomes the information of the DNA a protein ?  
A:
Genetic information —> two-step process

First :
In transcription, segments of DNA used to guide synthesis of molecules of RNA

Second : 
In translation, RNA molecules used to guide synthesis of molecules of protein 
Q:
What is the difference between a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic cell? 
A:
• Prokaryotic cells are simpler, usually smaller 
• They doesn’t contain nucleus or other membrane-enclosed organelles 
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