Zellbiologie at Universität Wien | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Zellbiologie an der Universität Wien

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Cell as a self-replicating collection of catalysts. How polynucleotides and proteins function ? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• Polynucleotides provide sequence information 
• Proteins (amino acid polymers) provide most of catalytic functions 

Serve to bring about the synthesis of more polynucleotides and proteins of the same type 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Definition of Gene
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Specific segment of DNA sequence (part on chromosome) corresponding to a single protein or set of alternative proteins or to a single catalytic, regulatory, or structural RNA molecule.

Each Protein encodes by specific Gene
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How genetic information is broadcast for use inside the cell? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Each cell contains fixed set of DNA molecules —> archive of genetic information.

Given segment of DNA guides synthesis of many identical RNA transcripts —> serve as working copies stored in archive 

Many different sets of RNA molecules can made by transcribing different parts of cell’s DNA sequences —> allowing different types of cells use same information store differently
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How does a protein molecule acts as a catalyst for a chemical reaction ? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• In protein molecule —> polymer chain folds up into specific shape defined by amino acid sequence 
• Groove in surface of folded molecule (enzyme lysozyme) forms catalytic site 
• Polysaccharide molecule binds to the catalytic site of lysozyme and breaks apart —> result : covalent bond-breaking reaction catalyzed by amino acids lining the groove 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is cell biology? 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Study of cells and how they function, subcellular processes which keep them functioning 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Definition of cell ? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
The cell is the lowest level of organisation that can perform all activities required for life 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the difference between cell biology and molecular biology? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• Molecular Biology : concentrates on molecules of life (nucleic acids, proteins, etc)

• Cell biology : Focus on the cell and how they use these molecules to survive and reproduce, carry out a wide variety of cell functions 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is a Cell? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
The smallest single unit of life 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Explain the templated polymerization of a new strand
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• Sequence of nucleotides in existing DNA strand controls sequence in which nucleotides are joined together 
• New strand has sequence complementary to old strand and a backbone with opposite directionality 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the three domains of life ? 
(Tree of Life - Three mayor groups) 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How becomes the information of the DNA a protein ?  
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Genetic information —> two-step process

First :
In transcription, segments of DNA used to guide synthesis of molecules of RNA

Second : 
In translation, RNA molecules used to guide synthesis of molecules of protein 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Which upper limits on the size of cells are set by metabolic requirements?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• Logistics of carrying out cellular metabolism sets limits on size of cells 
• Surface area to volume ratio is critical 
• Surface area increases by factor n^2, volume by n^3 —> small cells greater surface area relative to volume
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Q:
Cell as a self-replicating collection of catalysts. How polynucleotides and proteins function ? 
A:
• Polynucleotides provide sequence information 
• Proteins (amino acid polymers) provide most of catalytic functions 

Serve to bring about the synthesis of more polynucleotides and proteins of the same type 
Q:
Definition of Gene
A:
Specific segment of DNA sequence (part on chromosome) corresponding to a single protein or set of alternative proteins or to a single catalytic, regulatory, or structural RNA molecule.

Each Protein encodes by specific Gene
Q:
How genetic information is broadcast for use inside the cell? 
A:
Each cell contains fixed set of DNA molecules —> archive of genetic information.

Given segment of DNA guides synthesis of many identical RNA transcripts —> serve as working copies stored in archive 

Many different sets of RNA molecules can made by transcribing different parts of cell’s DNA sequences —> allowing different types of cells use same information store differently
Q:
How does a protein molecule acts as a catalyst for a chemical reaction ? 
A:
• In protein molecule —> polymer chain folds up into specific shape defined by amino acid sequence 
• Groove in surface of folded molecule (enzyme lysozyme) forms catalytic site 
• Polysaccharide molecule binds to the catalytic site of lysozyme and breaks apart —> result : covalent bond-breaking reaction catalyzed by amino acids lining the groove 

Q:
What is cell biology? 

A:
Study of cells and how they function, subcellular processes which keep them functioning 
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Definition of cell ? 
A:
The cell is the lowest level of organisation that can perform all activities required for life 
Q:
What is the difference between cell biology and molecular biology? 
A:
• Molecular Biology : concentrates on molecules of life (nucleic acids, proteins, etc)

• Cell biology : Focus on the cell and how they use these molecules to survive and reproduce, carry out a wide variety of cell functions 
Q:
What is a Cell? 
A:
The smallest single unit of life 
Q:
Explain the templated polymerization of a new strand
A:
• Sequence of nucleotides in existing DNA strand controls sequence in which nucleotides are joined together 
• New strand has sequence complementary to old strand and a backbone with opposite directionality 
Q:
What are the three domains of life ? 
(Tree of Life - Three mayor groups) 
A:
Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya
Q:
How becomes the information of the DNA a protein ?  
A:
Genetic information —> two-step process

First :
In transcription, segments of DNA used to guide synthesis of molecules of RNA

Second : 
In translation, RNA molecules used to guide synthesis of molecules of protein 
Q:
Which upper limits on the size of cells are set by metabolic requirements?
A:
• Logistics of carrying out cellular metabolism sets limits on size of cells 
• Surface area to volume ratio is critical 
• Surface area increases by factor n^2, volume by n^3 —> small cells greater surface area relative to volume
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