scientific writing at Universität Wien

Flashcards and summaries for scientific writing at the Universität Wien

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course scientific writing at the Universität Wien

Exemplary flashcards for scientific writing at the Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Why do you need writing in science?

Exemplary flashcards for scientific writing at the Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Name five attributes your writing should have.

Exemplary flashcards for scientific writing at the Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Why is focusing on a specific topic help you?

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Exemplary flashcards for scientific writing at the Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Why should an author formulate research questions?

Exemplary flashcards for scientific writing at the Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Name different types of research questions.

Exemplary flashcards for scientific writing at the Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Why should an author formulate a working hypothesis?

Exemplary flashcards for scientific writing at the Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Why should an author formulate a motivation of their research?

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Exemplary flashcards for scientific writing at the Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Name two types of reasoning and their definition.

Exemplary flashcards for scientific writing at the Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Name four problems with inductive reasoning with examples.

Exemplary flashcards for scientific writing at the Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

What is a problem with deductive reasoning?

Exemplary flashcards for scientific writing at the Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

Name four types of evidence.

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Name four ways to evaluate your evidence.

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Exemplary flashcards for scientific writing at the Universität Wien on StudySmarter:

scientific writing

Why do you need writing in science?

1. Communication with colleagues and with the public

2. Written account of empirical evidence and hypothetical models

3. Development of scientific knowledge

4. Raising funds

5. Career development

6. Development of deeper understanding of the research area

scientific writing

Name five attributes your writing should have.

1. Concrete

2. Clear

3. Compelling (convincing, persuasive)

4. Credible (trustworthy)

5. Engaging (exciting curiosity)

scientific writing

Why is focusing on a specific topic help you?

1. Narrow down your literature search

2. Formulate the research question

3. Justify its significance

4. Find suitable experimental approach(es)

scientific writing

Why should an author formulate research questions?

1. Explore the contribution of various factors

2. Describe new findings

3. Propose new approaches or research directions

4. Ask novel questions or voice disagreements with the existing knowledge

scientific writing

Name different types of research questions.

1. History or development of the subject

2. Structure and composition of the subject

3. Function(s) of the subject

4. Contribution of various factors to the subject or its function

5. Speculative (what if) questions

6. Questions of (dis)similarity btw. subjects

7. Questions based on disagreement with previous studies

scientific writing

Why should an author formulate a working hypothesis?

1. Test the prediction based on the working hypothesis (model)

2. Determine the conditions where the hypothesis (model) holds true

3. Propose alternative or improved hypotheses (models)

scientific writing

Why should an author formulate a motivation of their research?

1. Explicitly formulate the essence of the problem

2. Explain or highlight practical or conceptual significance of your research problem

3. Align your research interests or goals with readers' knowledge and expectations

scientific writing

Name two types of reasoning and their definition.

1. Inductive reasoning: reasoning based on the assumption that individual, particular instances (premises) supply strong evidence for the conclusion


2. Deductive reasoning: (top-down logic) reasoning based on combining two conditional statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion 

scientific writing

Name four problems with inductive reasoning with examples.

1. Faulty generalisation: holds true only as long as the assumption is correct

--> A turkey fed every day should live forever


2. Cherry picking,insufficient statistics or sample size


3. Confirmation boast: tendency to conform rather than deny an assumption/hypothesis

--> How can we prove our hypothesis? You don't prove then, you test them


4. False analogy

--> Eagles, sparrows and bats all have wings/ Eagles and sparrows lay eggs, while bats don't

scientific writing

What is a problem with deductive reasoning?

Faulty generalisation in the major premise

--> Everyone who eats carrots is a driver. John eats carrots. Therefore, John is a driver

scientific writing

Name four types of evidence.

1. Empirical observations

2. Statistics

3. Examples

4. Expert opinions and published records

scientific writing

Name four ways to evaluate your evidence.

1. Accuracy: Is your evidence sufficiently accurate and precise?

2. Sufficiency: Are the observations both necessary and sufficient to support your claim?

3. Credibility: Is your evidence reliable or based on an authoritative sources?

4. Relevance: Are your reasons related and representative to your claim? 


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