Linguistic at Universität Wien | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Linguistic an der Universität Wien

Greife auf kostenlose Karteikarten, Zusammenfassungen, Übungsaufgaben und Altklausuren für deinen Linguistic Kurs an der Universität Wien zu.

TESTE DEIN WISSEN

➢ What is linguistics?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Linguistic is the study of languages and the study of the form’s language can take and the ways that language is used. “it is all about human language” to express ideas and feelings. It’s not only about spoken language but also sign language.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Abbreviations:

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

➢ Acronyms= pronounced like a word (UNESCO, TOEFL, WIFI)
➢ Initialisms= pronounced letter by letter (CD, TV, PC, UK)
➢ Back-formation: a suffix that is stripped away→change of world class as in derivation
o Editor→edit
o Babysitter→babysit

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Compounding:

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

English students, lecture hall, handout, flashlight, textbook, word-class

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Semantic roles:

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

o The role that a noun phrase plays in the event described by a sentence
o Also called a thematic role or theta role
▪ Agent: the animate doer of the action
▪ Force: mindless, non-animate doer of action
▪ Theme: the thing being described or affected by the action/event
▪ Experiencer: the entity experiencing something (due to sensory or emotional input)
▪ Goal: the end point of a movement
▪ Recipient: subtype of goal, the animate entity for/against whose benefit the action is performed
▪ Stimulus: the thing that prompts sensory or emotional feelings/states
▪ Instrument: the thing being used to carry out an action

▪ Source: the starting point of a movement
▪ Path: describes motion or propulsion between source and goal
▪ Location: where the entity is located/where the action takes place
▪ Time: the time at which event or action takes place
▪ Manner: how an action is carried out

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Word classes:

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

o Noun: dog, cake, London, peace, Harry
o Verb: eat, sleep, study, be, appear
o Adjective: small, exciting, delicious, poor, English
o Adverb: quickly, very, yesterday, soon, fast
o Preposition: on, in, before, around, in front of
o Determinative: the, a(n), this, these, my, some
o Conjunctions: and, but, that, if, because

o Pronouns: I, you, me, myself, it

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

English: language for standard functions and literature

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

o The canterbury tales by Geoffrey Chaucer
o Many legal/medical documents, sermons, and letters
o Alphabet/spelling:
▪ Frenchified→loss of runes
▪ Absence of standard leads to high degree in spelling variation
o Pronunciation: change in diphthongs
o Morphosyntax: inflections reduced to schwa→inflections are lost
o OE demonstratives reduced to ME definite article “the”
o SVO becomes more frequent (due to loss of morphological case marking) but remains fairly flexible

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Syntax:

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

o study of structural units larger than words (phrases and sentences)
▪ What is grammar?
▪ Difficult to find a clear definition, as the concept is used in different context and ways
o Syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Prescriptive:

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

• tell people how to speak/write properly (Teacher)
• right/wrong
• good/bad
• well-formed/ill-formed
• Grammatical/ungrammatical

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Grammaticalization:

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

▪ A type of morphosyntactic change
▪ The increase of the range of a morpheme advancing from a lexical to a grammatical or from a less grammatical to a more grammatical status
• Examples:
o Words representing lexical categories like noun, verb or adjective change and become part of grammatical categories like, e.g., preposition or auxiliaries, which can even further be reduced to affixes. In other words, words with full lexical content turn into form words which mark a certain construction. Not only lexical elements can undergo grammaticalization, but grammatical elements too can become even more grammatical

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Synchronic:

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

▪ Language at a certain point of time
▪ Language is constantly changing and developing

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Grammar:

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

o Different approaches to grammar:
▪ Prescriptive vs. descriptive
▪ Traditional (what you would find in a textbook or what you teach student)
▪ Theoretical: a linguist’s model of how languages are organized, acquired and developed

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Pragmatics:

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

the study of meaning in context, study of discourse

Lösung ausblenden
  • 257938 Karteikarten
  • 5807 Studierende
  • 86 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Linguistic Kurs an der Universität Wien - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

➢ What is linguistics?

A:

Linguistic is the study of languages and the study of the form’s language can take and the ways that language is used. “it is all about human language” to express ideas and feelings. It’s not only about spoken language but also sign language.

Q:

Abbreviations:

A:

➢ Acronyms= pronounced like a word (UNESCO, TOEFL, WIFI)
➢ Initialisms= pronounced letter by letter (CD, TV, PC, UK)
➢ Back-formation: a suffix that is stripped away→change of world class as in derivation
o Editor→edit
o Babysitter→babysit

Q:

Compounding:

A:

English students, lecture hall, handout, flashlight, textbook, word-class

Q:

Semantic roles:

A:

o The role that a noun phrase plays in the event described by a sentence
o Also called a thematic role or theta role
▪ Agent: the animate doer of the action
▪ Force: mindless, non-animate doer of action
▪ Theme: the thing being described or affected by the action/event
▪ Experiencer: the entity experiencing something (due to sensory or emotional input)
▪ Goal: the end point of a movement
▪ Recipient: subtype of goal, the animate entity for/against whose benefit the action is performed
▪ Stimulus: the thing that prompts sensory or emotional feelings/states
▪ Instrument: the thing being used to carry out an action

▪ Source: the starting point of a movement
▪ Path: describes motion or propulsion between source and goal
▪ Location: where the entity is located/where the action takes place
▪ Time: the time at which event or action takes place
▪ Manner: how an action is carried out

Q:

Word classes:

A:

o Noun: dog, cake, London, peace, Harry
o Verb: eat, sleep, study, be, appear
o Adjective: small, exciting, delicious, poor, English
o Adverb: quickly, very, yesterday, soon, fast
o Preposition: on, in, before, around, in front of
o Determinative: the, a(n), this, these, my, some
o Conjunctions: and, but, that, if, because

o Pronouns: I, you, me, myself, it

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

English: language for standard functions and literature

A:

o The canterbury tales by Geoffrey Chaucer
o Many legal/medical documents, sermons, and letters
o Alphabet/spelling:
▪ Frenchified→loss of runes
▪ Absence of standard leads to high degree in spelling variation
o Pronunciation: change in diphthongs
o Morphosyntax: inflections reduced to schwa→inflections are lost
o OE demonstratives reduced to ME definite article “the”
o SVO becomes more frequent (due to loss of morphological case marking) but remains fairly flexible

Q:

Syntax:

A:

o study of structural units larger than words (phrases and sentences)
▪ What is grammar?
▪ Difficult to find a clear definition, as the concept is used in different context and ways
o Syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order

Q:

Prescriptive:

A:

• tell people how to speak/write properly (Teacher)
• right/wrong
• good/bad
• well-formed/ill-formed
• Grammatical/ungrammatical

Q:

Grammaticalization:

A:

▪ A type of morphosyntactic change
▪ The increase of the range of a morpheme advancing from a lexical to a grammatical or from a less grammatical to a more grammatical status
• Examples:
o Words representing lexical categories like noun, verb or adjective change and become part of grammatical categories like, e.g., preposition or auxiliaries, which can even further be reduced to affixes. In other words, words with full lexical content turn into form words which mark a certain construction. Not only lexical elements can undergo grammaticalization, but grammatical elements too can become even more grammatical

Q:

Synchronic:

A:

▪ Language at a certain point of time
▪ Language is constantly changing and developing

Q:

Grammar:

A:

o Different approaches to grammar:
▪ Prescriptive vs. descriptive
▪ Traditional (what you would find in a textbook or what you teach student)
▪ Theoretical: a linguist’s model of how languages are organized, acquired and developed

Q:

Pragmatics:

A:

the study of meaning in context, study of discourse

Linguistic

Erstelle und finde Lernmaterialien auf StudySmarter.

Greife kostenlos auf tausende geteilte Karteikarten, Zusammenfassungen, Altklausuren und mehr zu.

Jetzt loslegen

Das sind die beliebtesten Linguistic Kurse im gesamten StudySmarter Universum

Linguistics

LMU München

Zum Kurs
Linguistics

Bergische Universität Wuppertal

Zum Kurs
Linguistics

Universität Kassel

Zum Kurs
Linguistics

Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

Zum Kurs
linguistics

Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen

Zum Kurs

Die all-in-one Lernapp für Studierende

Greife auf Millionen geteilter Lernmaterialien der StudySmarter Community zu
Kostenlos anmelden Linguistic
Erstelle Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen mit den StudySmarter Tools
Kostenlos loslegen Linguistic