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Lernmaterialien für Immuno A an der Universität Wien

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Tumor associated antigens

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- Tumor cell: mutation-generated neopeptide -> new TCR contact -> T-cell response

- Oncogenic virus tumor: peptide from a protein encoded by an oncogenic virus -> T-cell response

- Methylated genes: not part of thymic selection, tumor can cause demethylation and activate the gene -> no tolerance so T-cells can recognize them. Mostly proteins needed for development from "tumor antigens".
- overexpression of oncogenic protein due to gene amplification -> high avidity breaks tolerance.
- Increased number of cells expressing tissue-specific protein -> increased likelihood of T-cell activation

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How do B-cells recognize Antigen?

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With an antibody inserted in their membrane. When they become plasma cells (activated B-cells), they will produce soluble antibodies, with the same binding facilities, so they recognize the same antigen. 

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Cells of innate immune system

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- Epithelia (first barrier)
- phagocytes: eat and then kill microbes

- Dendritic Cells: communicate with the adaptive IS in a process called antigen presentation.
- NK-cells: also called innate lymphocytes (ILCs): kill infected cells
- Soluble System: Proteins that compose the complement system.

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Antibody functions

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- neutralisation

- opsonization

- antidbody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity 

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How fast does the innate/adaptive IS respond?

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Innate: within minutes/hours
Adaptive: 4-7 days

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T-cell-Types

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- Helper T-cells:  Th, help B-lymphocytes to produce antibodies (necessary)

- Cytotoxic T-cells: Tc, kill infected cells 

- Regulatory T-cells (Treg): Negatively regulate immune cells that react to selfantigen -> prevents autoimmunity

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Pattern recognition Receptors

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Receptors of innate IS.
PRR can recognize molecular patterns of microbes. They are identical in each individual of a species & their distribution is nonclonal (Not from the same mother cell). They are encoded in our genome and are tolerant to selfantigen.

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Why somatic recombination for antigen receptors

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Somatic recombination occurs during B- and T-cell development, makes billions of pathogen receptors out of a few genes.
Lymphocyte receptors recognize an epitope -> smaller pattern that the innate receptor recognizes & more specific to single molecules.

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Lipopolysaccharides

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Lipid + saccharide.
On OM of gram- bacteria.
They differ in specific structure, but the overall structure is the same and can be recognized by PRR.
Same goes for peptidoglycan (gram+)

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Phases of an immune response

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- Recognition: detection of antigen  -> requires cells with receptors for foreign antigen.
- Expansion: binding leads to activation of cells that participate in immune responses.
- Effector functions: This can be anything in order to remove the antigen (e.g. kill the cells)
- Contraction & memory: Cells must go back to original state (homeostasis) -> cells that proliferated must be removed (contraction) & cells left, remember the foreign antigen which leads to faster and stronger immune responses during the next infection.

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Lymphocytes without developed antigen receptors

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- NK-cells

- Innate Lymphocytes: produce cytokines and regulate immune responses like T-cells, but without receptors

- Intraepithelial T lymphocytes: T-cell-receptor but don't need to adapt to an antigen by clonal expansion, but act immediately
- Mucosa-associated invariant T-cells: have receptors that recognize microbial antigens without clonal selection 

- B1-cell: respond to conserved microbial antigens by producing IgM antibodies without clonal selection or T-cell help

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Antibody production

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Resting B-cell recognizes native antigen. If help is provided by Th cells, B-cell is activated and it multiplies. Part of the activated B-cells will differentiate into plasma cells.
Plasma cells produce up to 100.000 antibodies per minute.

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  • 306916 Karteikarten
  • 6485 Studierende
  • 96 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Immuno A Kurs an der Universität Wien - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

Tumor associated antigens

A:

- Tumor cell: mutation-generated neopeptide -> new TCR contact -> T-cell response

- Oncogenic virus tumor: peptide from a protein encoded by an oncogenic virus -> T-cell response

- Methylated genes: not part of thymic selection, tumor can cause demethylation and activate the gene -> no tolerance so T-cells can recognize them. Mostly proteins needed for development from "tumor antigens".
- overexpression of oncogenic protein due to gene amplification -> high avidity breaks tolerance.
- Increased number of cells expressing tissue-specific protein -> increased likelihood of T-cell activation

Q:

How do B-cells recognize Antigen?

A:

With an antibody inserted in their membrane. When they become plasma cells (activated B-cells), they will produce soluble antibodies, with the same binding facilities, so they recognize the same antigen. 

Q:

Cells of innate immune system

A:

- Epithelia (first barrier)
- phagocytes: eat and then kill microbes

- Dendritic Cells: communicate with the adaptive IS in a process called antigen presentation.
- NK-cells: also called innate lymphocytes (ILCs): kill infected cells
- Soluble System: Proteins that compose the complement system.

Q:

Antibody functions

A:

- neutralisation

- opsonization

- antidbody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity 

Q:

How fast does the innate/adaptive IS respond?

A:

Innate: within minutes/hours
Adaptive: 4-7 days

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

T-cell-Types

A:

- Helper T-cells:  Th, help B-lymphocytes to produce antibodies (necessary)

- Cytotoxic T-cells: Tc, kill infected cells 

- Regulatory T-cells (Treg): Negatively regulate immune cells that react to selfantigen -> prevents autoimmunity

Q:

Pattern recognition Receptors

A:

Receptors of innate IS.
PRR can recognize molecular patterns of microbes. They are identical in each individual of a species & their distribution is nonclonal (Not from the same mother cell). They are encoded in our genome and are tolerant to selfantigen.

Q:

Why somatic recombination for antigen receptors

A:

Somatic recombination occurs during B- and T-cell development, makes billions of pathogen receptors out of a few genes.
Lymphocyte receptors recognize an epitope -> smaller pattern that the innate receptor recognizes & more specific to single molecules.

Q:

Lipopolysaccharides

A:

Lipid + saccharide.
On OM of gram- bacteria.
They differ in specific structure, but the overall structure is the same and can be recognized by PRR.
Same goes for peptidoglycan (gram+)

Q:

Phases of an immune response

A:

- Recognition: detection of antigen  -> requires cells with receptors for foreign antigen.
- Expansion: binding leads to activation of cells that participate in immune responses.
- Effector functions: This can be anything in order to remove the antigen (e.g. kill the cells)
- Contraction & memory: Cells must go back to original state (homeostasis) -> cells that proliferated must be removed (contraction) & cells left, remember the foreign antigen which leads to faster and stronger immune responses during the next infection.

Q:

Lymphocytes without developed antigen receptors

A:

- NK-cells

- Innate Lymphocytes: produce cytokines and regulate immune responses like T-cells, but without receptors

- Intraepithelial T lymphocytes: T-cell-receptor but don't need to adapt to an antigen by clonal expansion, but act immediately
- Mucosa-associated invariant T-cells: have receptors that recognize microbial antigens without clonal selection 

- B1-cell: respond to conserved microbial antigens by producing IgM antibodies without clonal selection or T-cell help

Q:

Antibody production

A:

Resting B-cell recognizes native antigen. If help is provided by Th cells, B-cell is activated and it multiplies. Part of the activated B-cells will differentiate into plasma cells.
Plasma cells produce up to 100.000 antibodies per minute.

Immuno A

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