CSCW at Universität Siegen

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What is CSCW?

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What is the focus of CSCW?

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How works division of labour ?

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What are the principles of CSCW?

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What is Articulation Work?

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Explain more Articulation Work

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What is formalization?

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What is social presence?

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How work Coordination Mechanisms?

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What is Ethnography? 

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Describe ethnography as a tradition of enquiry

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What are principles of ethnographic research?

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CSCW

What is CSCW?

Work supported by groupware systems

- Introduced by Irene Greid and Paul Cashman

CSCW

What is the focus of CSCW?

- techniques to capture and describe the work practices in organizations 

  • Divisions of labor
  • Articulation work
  • Coordination
  • etc.

CSCW

How works division of labour ?

  • Divide to conquer
  • Efficiency improvement
  • different from division of work
  • task assignment based upon workers skills and abilities

CSCW

What are the principles of CSCW?

- Taylorism

- Outsourcing

- Virtual teams

- Virtual organizations

- Telework 

CSCW

What is Articulation Work?

- Kind of supra-type of work in any division of labour, done by various actors

- Amounts to following:

  • meshing of tasks(clusters of tasks, segment of total arc.)
  • meshing of efforts of various unit-workers (individuals, departments, etc.)
  • meshing of actors with various types of work and implicated tasks
  • (optional ) Coordination

CSCW

Explain more Articulation Work

- it centers decision-making regarding who is supposed to do what, when, where, how, with which quality etc ?

- everyone has to reflect over his work and its organization

- related to trust and social capital -> trading formal control vs flexible self-organzation

CSCW

What is formalization?

- A strategy to reduce the need for constant articulation work, but it can never be fully avoided

CSCW

What is social presence?

social presence: communicators sense of awareness of the presence of interaction partner

- important for process by which man comes to know and think about other persons (characteristics, qualities, inner states)

- increased presence leads to better person perception


CSCW

How work Coordination Mechanisms?

- a protocol that stipulates and mediates distributed activities

- also reduce complexity of articulatind distributed activities of large cooperations

- encompasses a set of explicit conventions and prescribes procedures. supported by symbolic artifact with standardized format

CSCW

What is Ethnography? 

- éthnos (Greek folk people) + graphia (Greek description of)

- Roots in Anthropology /Ethnology

- Departure from armchair anthropology

-phenomenologically-oriented approach

- compares and contrasts group of people

- you have to talk to people to recognize peoples behaviour

- starts from premise: that every peoples worlds are highly contextual


CSCW

Describe ethnography as a tradition of enquiry

- general research attitude, rather than a specific collection of methods

- focus on

  • small lifeworlds
  • culture-sharing groups

- Aims: -> elaboration and understanding of the social organization of a group based on


- practices, rules, roles, relations, values, behaviors, beliefs and language 

- Immersion -> Extended (participant) observations and interviews

CSCW

What are principles of ethnographic research?

- "Natural" research settings (should not disturb processes in ethnographic groups)

- Description of actual practice and not the desired/ prescribed

- Consideration of the context

- Longitudinal studies (necessary to "dive" into field)

- Understanding -> from point of view of the local actor

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