A&O Psychology at Universität Siegen | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für A&O Psychology an der Universität Siegen

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❗️Hypothesis Testing vs. Hypothesis Generating Differences

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  • Hypothesis Generating
    • To explore and describe new field, when there is no assumption but only new problems
    • Find new insight, generate new assumptions/hypotheses
    • Uses Qualitative method
  • Hypothesis Testing
    • To explain or to predict something in already existing field
    • To prove, verify/falsify hypotheses
    • Uses Quantitative method
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❗️Theories in Psychology

Please name 4 psychological theories

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  • Behaviourism, Cognitivism
  • Pragmatism, Constructivism
  • Socio-cultural theories
  • Neurological theories
  • Philosophical theories
  • Political theories, ecological theories
  • Economical theories, game theories
  • Learning Theories, evolutionary and development theories
  • Epistemological and methodological theories
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Influencing Theories

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  • Bounded Reality: People making decisions in organizations seldom have complete information, and tend to pick the first acceptable option
  • Theory on Learning Organization
  • Theory on Systems Thinking
  • Communication-in-context model
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❗️(Weber's Bureaucratic Organization) Span of Control

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Span of control is the area of activity and number of functions, people, or things for which an individual or organization is responsible. Usually it describes the number of subordinates a supervisor has.


  • Wide span of control:
    • for simple jobs
    • managers can oversee & control many employees
  • Narrow span of control:
    • for complicated/customized work
    • suitable for agile companies like new IT startups
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Subjects of Organizational Communication (Formal, Informal, Downward, Upward)

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  • Formal Communication:
    • Official structures and processes
    • Standardized and controlled communication
  • Downward Communication/Top-down approach:
    • Top Level Management communicates to the lower levels
    • Implement policies
  • Upward Communication/Bottom-up approach:
    • Top Level Management needs information from lower levels
    • Feedback, improvement, suggestions, etc.
  • Informal communication:
    • Interpersonal, horizontal communication
    • Increasing relevance and attention

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

❗️Pros of Bureaucratic Organization

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  • Improves Organizational Efficiency
  • Improves objectivity/rationality of

    organization, structure and

    processes

  • Supports planning and control/management rationales

  • Supports accountability

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Bureaucratization

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  • Central mechanism of rationalization of modern society
  • Solves the problem of favoritism and nepotism
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❗️Definition of organization

How do you define an organization, what are defining characteristics?

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  • Social unit of people, systematically structured
  • Pursue collective goals on a continuing basis
  • All have management structure that
    • determines relationships between function & position
    • subdivides
    • delegates roles, responsibility & authority to carry out defined tasks
  • Open systems that affect/are affected by environment


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Human Relations Research & Theories

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  • Hawthorne-Study on individual vs. group performance & Socio-cultural effects
  • Participation Theory
  • Growth Perspective
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

❗️Cons of Taylorism

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  • Monotonous & repeated task which can decrease motivation of the workers 
  • Workers are exchangeable, because they do small tasks and manual activities.
  • De-qualification and dis-satisfaction from workers
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❗️Contingency Theories

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The best way to structure an organization depends on the circumstances of the organization


  • Mintzberg: defines forms of coordination, roles in organization, and shapes of organization
  • Woodward: Small batch vs. Large batch organizations/ mass production
  • Lawrence and Lorsch: Mechanistic organizations vs. Organic organizations
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

❗️Pros of Taylorism

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Efficiency and productivity for industrial production
  • With Scientific Task Analysis, company improved efficiency by cutting out unimportant steps
  • Helps adjust workload for the workers so that they are not overworked
  • Improved Health of the workers
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  • 1207 Studierende
  • 45 Lernmaterialien

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Q:

❗️Hypothesis Testing vs. Hypothesis Generating Differences

A:
  • Hypothesis Generating
    • To explore and describe new field, when there is no assumption but only new problems
    • Find new insight, generate new assumptions/hypotheses
    • Uses Qualitative method
  • Hypothesis Testing
    • To explain or to predict something in already existing field
    • To prove, verify/falsify hypotheses
    • Uses Quantitative method
Q:

❗️Theories in Psychology

Please name 4 psychological theories

A:
  • Behaviourism, Cognitivism
  • Pragmatism, Constructivism
  • Socio-cultural theories
  • Neurological theories
  • Philosophical theories
  • Political theories, ecological theories
  • Economical theories, game theories
  • Learning Theories, evolutionary and development theories
  • Epistemological and methodological theories
Q:

Influencing Theories

A:
  • Bounded Reality: People making decisions in organizations seldom have complete information, and tend to pick the first acceptable option
  • Theory on Learning Organization
  • Theory on Systems Thinking
  • Communication-in-context model
Q:

❗️(Weber's Bureaucratic Organization) Span of Control

A:

Span of control is the area of activity and number of functions, people, or things for which an individual or organization is responsible. Usually it describes the number of subordinates a supervisor has.


  • Wide span of control:
    • for simple jobs
    • managers can oversee & control many employees
  • Narrow span of control:
    • for complicated/customized work
    • suitable for agile companies like new IT startups
Q:

Subjects of Organizational Communication (Formal, Informal, Downward, Upward)

A:
  • Formal Communication:
    • Official structures and processes
    • Standardized and controlled communication
  • Downward Communication/Top-down approach:
    • Top Level Management communicates to the lower levels
    • Implement policies
  • Upward Communication/Bottom-up approach:
    • Top Level Management needs information from lower levels
    • Feedback, improvement, suggestions, etc.
  • Informal communication:
    • Interpersonal, horizontal communication
    • Increasing relevance and attention

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

❗️Pros of Bureaucratic Organization

A:
  • Improves Organizational Efficiency
  • Improves objectivity/rationality of

    organization, structure and

    processes

  • Supports planning and control/management rationales

  • Supports accountability

Q:

Bureaucratization

A:
  • Central mechanism of rationalization of modern society
  • Solves the problem of favoritism and nepotism
Q:

❗️Definition of organization

How do you define an organization, what are defining characteristics?

A:
  • Social unit of people, systematically structured
  • Pursue collective goals on a continuing basis
  • All have management structure that
    • determines relationships between function & position
    • subdivides
    • delegates roles, responsibility & authority to carry out defined tasks
  • Open systems that affect/are affected by environment


Q:

Human Relations Research & Theories

A:
  • Hawthorne-Study on individual vs. group performance & Socio-cultural effects
  • Participation Theory
  • Growth Perspective
Q:

❗️Cons of Taylorism

A:
  • Monotonous & repeated task which can decrease motivation of the workers 
  • Workers are exchangeable, because they do small tasks and manual activities.
  • De-qualification and dis-satisfaction from workers
Q:

❗️Contingency Theories

A:

The best way to structure an organization depends on the circumstances of the organization


  • Mintzberg: defines forms of coordination, roles in organization, and shapes of organization
  • Woodward: Small batch vs. Large batch organizations/ mass production
  • Lawrence and Lorsch: Mechanistic organizations vs. Organic organizations
Q:

❗️Pros of Taylorism

A:
  • Efficiency and productivity for industrial production
  • With Scientific Task Analysis, company improved efficiency by cutting out unimportant steps
  • Helps adjust workload for the workers so that they are not overworked
  • Improved Health of the workers
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