Grammar Summary C1 at Universität Salzburg | Flashcards & Summaries

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State (stative) verbs are: 

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anti-progressive verbs

or

classes of verbs normally

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SIMPLE Aspect - the action is:

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  • a whole
  • complete
  • permanent
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State (stative) verbs:

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  • Verbs of inert/involuntary perception: smell, taste, see...
  • Verbs of inert cognition: understand, know, believe...
  • Verbs of attitude (volition and feeling): hate, hope, intend, like...
  • Relational verbs of having and being: be, have, belong to, contain, consist of, matter, own...​​​
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Types of Aspects:

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Two: SIMPLE and PROGRESSIVE

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Progressive Aspect - the action is:

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  • in progress
  • incomplete
  • temporary
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event (dynamic/action) verbs are:

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classes of verbs with the progressive aspect

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Simple Present Tense USES: 

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  1. "State" Use (unrestrictive use)
    verbs expressing a temoral stable state of affairs or permanent situations
  2. Event use (instanteneous use)
    commentaries/demonstrations, exclamations (with initial directional adverb), performative utterances/formal acts of delaration
  3. Habitual use (iterative use)
    habits and repeated events​​​​
  4. Past reference (historic present)
    oral narratives, stories, jokes, discussing an artist and his work, newspaper headlines, recounting the plot of books, plays, films, captions to photographs
  5. Future reference
    future event regarded as immutable, unalterable, programmed, in dependent clauses "if, unless, when, as soon as, as"
  6. Imaginar use
    reference to imaginary present time-fictional use --> dramatic effect, stage directions, summaries of the plot of books, plays, films, travel itinerary, instruction booklets
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Past Tense USES:

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  1. Normal use in reference to past time
    the happening takes place before the present moment, the speaker has a definite time (of the past) in mind 
    1. unitary past --> single past event
    2. habitual past --> repeated event in the past
  2. Hypothetical meaning
    Hypothsis about the present time: in dependent clauses (after: it's time, I wish, as if, as though, suppose, imagine...) + past tense --> If only I was brave enough to do it now.
    Hypothesis about the past time: I wish, as if, as though, if only, suppose, imagine + past perfect tense --> If only I had been brave enough to do it then.
  3. Reference to the present
    everyday conversation, present feelings or thoughts of the speaker or hearer, polite request (past progressive is even more polite)
  4. Used to
    past state or habit
  5. Would
    typical behaviour, past habit​​​​
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Event (dynamic/action) verbs:


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  • momentary verbs: knock, nod, jump
  • transitional event verbs: arrive, fall, lose
  • activity verbs: drink, eat write
  • Process verbs: change, grow, become, get
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past perfect tense verb USES

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  • state-up-to-then
  • idefinite past-in-past
  • habit-up-to-then
  • resultative past-in-past
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In if-clauses, time clauses, and defining relative clauses the PRESENT PERFECT TENSE can refer to...?

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a future time

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Present perfect tense verb USES

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  • state-up-to-the-present
  • indefinite past: time is left unspecified​​​​
  • recent indefinite past: has the postman called yet?​​​​
  • habit in a period leading up to the present: with event verbs; adverbial of duration/frequency usually required
  • resultative past: result still operative in the present time
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Q:

State (stative) verbs are: 

A:

anti-progressive verbs

or

classes of verbs normally

Q:

SIMPLE Aspect - the action is:

A:
  • a whole
  • complete
  • permanent
Q:

State (stative) verbs:

A:
  • Verbs of inert/involuntary perception: smell, taste, see...
  • Verbs of inert cognition: understand, know, believe...
  • Verbs of attitude (volition and feeling): hate, hope, intend, like...
  • Relational verbs of having and being: be, have, belong to, contain, consist of, matter, own...​​​
Q:

Types of Aspects:

A:

Two: SIMPLE and PROGRESSIVE

Q:

Progressive Aspect - the action is:

A:
  • in progress
  • incomplete
  • temporary
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Q:

event (dynamic/action) verbs are:

A:

classes of verbs with the progressive aspect

Q:

Simple Present Tense USES: 

A:
  1. "State" Use (unrestrictive use)
    verbs expressing a temoral stable state of affairs or permanent situations
  2. Event use (instanteneous use)
    commentaries/demonstrations, exclamations (with initial directional adverb), performative utterances/formal acts of delaration
  3. Habitual use (iterative use)
    habits and repeated events​​​​
  4. Past reference (historic present)
    oral narratives, stories, jokes, discussing an artist and his work, newspaper headlines, recounting the plot of books, plays, films, captions to photographs
  5. Future reference
    future event regarded as immutable, unalterable, programmed, in dependent clauses "if, unless, when, as soon as, as"
  6. Imaginar use
    reference to imaginary present time-fictional use --> dramatic effect, stage directions, summaries of the plot of books, plays, films, travel itinerary, instruction booklets
Q:

Past Tense USES:

A:
  1. Normal use in reference to past time
    the happening takes place before the present moment, the speaker has a definite time (of the past) in mind 
    1. unitary past --> single past event
    2. habitual past --> repeated event in the past
  2. Hypothetical meaning
    Hypothsis about the present time: in dependent clauses (after: it's time, I wish, as if, as though, suppose, imagine...) + past tense --> If only I was brave enough to do it now.
    Hypothesis about the past time: I wish, as if, as though, if only, suppose, imagine + past perfect tense --> If only I had been brave enough to do it then.
  3. Reference to the present
    everyday conversation, present feelings or thoughts of the speaker or hearer, polite request (past progressive is even more polite)
  4. Used to
    past state or habit
  5. Would
    typical behaviour, past habit​​​​
Q:

Event (dynamic/action) verbs:


A:
  • momentary verbs: knock, nod, jump
  • transitional event verbs: arrive, fall, lose
  • activity verbs: drink, eat write
  • Process verbs: change, grow, become, get
Q:

past perfect tense verb USES

A:
  • state-up-to-then
  • idefinite past-in-past
  • habit-up-to-then
  • resultative past-in-past
Q:

In if-clauses, time clauses, and defining relative clauses the PRESENT PERFECT TENSE can refer to...?

A:

a future time

Q:

Present perfect tense verb USES

A:
  • state-up-to-the-present
  • indefinite past: time is left unspecified​​​​
  • recent indefinite past: has the postman called yet?​​​​
  • habit in a period leading up to the present: with event verbs; adverbial of duration/frequency usually required
  • resultative past: result still operative in the present time
Grammar Summary C1

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